When questions about Jihad (Jihaad) are put forward, they are solely about the Holy War! Jihaad Fii Sabi Lillaah or Struggle in the path of God is thus also called the Holy war. Therefore no reasons are left to divert the topic with answers other than Holy War’s topic.
Shia Islam has ten Practices/ Branches of Faith ( Furu Deen), Jihad is sixth branch or sixth practice in Shia Islam. Status of Jihad, the Holy War in Shia Islam stands suspended (Saaqit). This ‘Saaqit’ or suspension is not ever-lasting.
Shia Islam preaches infallibility of Prophet Mohammed and his deputies, the series of twelve Imams (Aimmah). Shia Islam when it talks about Jihad the Holy War, has set pre-requisite for Jihad the Holy War to be undertaken. Shia Islam states that the order of Jihad the Holy War could only be issued by an infallible divinely guided person, as bloodshed is involved, also justice is the criteria of Jihaad, and only an infallible person can observe justice.
Since only Prophet Mohammed and his deputies the twelve Imams (Aimmah) are infallible from Shia Islamic view, only they alone can issue the order of Jihad the Holy War. Prophet Mohammed and eleven of his deputies have been martyred and the last deputy Imam Mohammed Mahdi is under occultation, thus Jihad the Holy War currently stands suspended in Shia Islam.
No matter how educated or intelligible a jurist may become he can never acquire the status of Isma or Infallibility, thus as per Shia Islam’s preaching, has no right to issue Jihad. An educated and intelligent jurist may not knowingly do injustice but out of limitations of normal human, being fallible may commit mistakes unknowingly. Jihad is to be fought without personal prejudice and without anger, it is fought solely for sake of God.
Shia Islam preaches that prior to Jihad the Holy War, Hujjat, the complete proofs of faith are presented, if that is not working the policy of peaceful co-existence is presented, if even that is not working, then as last course of action Jihad the Holy War is ordered. All these highest level activities could only be undertaken by and an Infallible, either Prophet Mohammed himself or his twelve deputies the Imams (Aimmah).
Of all the Infallibles, Prophet Mohammed issued Jihad the Holy War at Badr, Ohad, Khandaq, Khaybar, Hunain etc, His first deputy Imam Ali Murtada ordered Jihad the Holy War at Basra, Siffin, Nehrawan etc in Iraq, and the third Imam Husain Shaheed undertook Jihad the Holy War at Karbala, Iraq. All three infallibles took the course of Jihaad as last course of action and at utmost necessity.
Other Imams didn’t faced these utmost critical periods although they had very severe periods upon them, but Divine guidance bestowed upon them didn’t confuse them that those period were utmost critical, thus they practised alternate courses of actions other than Jihad the Holy War.
Shia Islam preaches Jihad as branch of religion and requires every Shia Muslim to be prepared for it, but no Shia Muslim be he jurist or layman has any right to order Jihad. Shia Islam preaches when Twelfth and Last Imam Mohammed Mahdi re-appears from occultation the ghaybat, he would order Jihad the Holy War, but this topic is part of Shia Islamic Eschatology.
A lot is said about offensive Jihad and defensive Jihad, but no proofs have been shown that Prophet Mohammed of whom Holy Quran declares being ‘Rahmatulill Alamiin’ the Mercy upon universes ever undertook offensive jihad. Prophet Mohammed, Imam Ali Murtada and Imam Husain faced the worst scenario in front of them and the only course of action left before them from Islamic point of view was Jihad the Holy War. Thus, the accusation of offensive Jihad is mere guesswork by various individuals.
Prophet Mohammed never made an empire; he only gave a governing system to the people in that area which had no governance at all and were nomadic and rudimentary, thus Prophet Mohammed’s action were not establishment of an empire or political identity in World politics. Confusing later Muslim conquests with Jihad the Holy war is absurd.
Islamic empires and so called Islamic wars to establish Islamic dynasties since the martyrdom of Prophet Mohammed were politically motivated, they have no Islamic sanctions. Thus to confuse Jihad the Holy War with politically motivated wars to establish Muslim dynasties is grievous mistake. These attacks were and are given the name of Jihad the Holy War to confuse and mix political motivations of power hungry men with pristine pure Islamic teachings.
The direct family of Prophet Mohammed was the first victim of terrorism by power hungry hypocrite Muslims. Eleven Imam (Aimmah) or deputies of Prophet Mohammed were either attacked with swords or poisoned. The sorrows are endless upon Prophet Mohammed’s family, but it makes one become clear that Jihad the Holy War and pseudo jihad is all about hunger of power and money and is branded jihad just for sake of confusion.
Giving other meanings of word Jihad, and talking about moral activities of inner fight against ego etc is vague. Defending one’s family, children, neighbours, nation; earning lawful money and staying away from sins are loftily aspects in themselves and may be called as jihad from different perspective, they all have other specifics names in Islamic vocabulary.
Jihad the Holy War is completely different thing and could be ordered only by Prophet Mohammed himself or his twelve deputies the Imams (Aimmah). Prophet Mohammed and eleven Imams (Aimmah) are martyred, thus the only person who could declare the real Jihad the Holy War is only twelfth Imam Mohammed Mahdi.
O Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.