Friday, 25 August 2017

Shia Islam ke Aqaaid aur Aamaal (Urdu)

Topic 45:

Deen ke Usul, Aqaaid, Buniyaad yaane Usul e Deen, ye taadaad me paanch hae:

In English

1) Tauhiid (Allah ko Ek maanna)
2) Adaalat (Allah ke tamaam nizaam ki buniyaad Adl ko maanna)
3) Nubuwat (Tamaam Nabiyou yaane Ambiyaa ko maanna)
4) Imaamat (Allah ke muqqarrar karda tamaam Imaamou yaane Aimmaah ko maanna)
5) Qayaamat (Qayaamat ke din ko haq maanna)

Deen ke Aamaal, Shaakhe yaane Furu e Deen, ye taadaad me das hae:

1) Salaat (Namaaz)
2) Sawm (Roza)
3) Zakaat (Gharibo ka hissa)
4) Khums (Paanchwa hisaa)
5) Hajj (Makka ka safar)
6) Jihaad (Jaddo-jehd)
7) Amr bil Maaruf (Nek aamaal ki daawat)
8) Nahi anil Munkar (Buure aamaal se ikhtelaaf)
9) Tawalla (Sayyedna Mohammed aur unke Ahle Bait se mohabbat/ muwaddat rakhna)
10) Tabarra (Sayyedna Mohammed ke dushmanou aur unke Ahle Bait ke dushmanou se duri aur bezaari rakhna)

Ae Allah! Sayyedna Mohammed aur unke Ahle Bait par Salaato Salaam.


Friday, 10 March 2017

Caliphate of Imam Ali Murtada

Topic 44: 

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Ali Murtada was the closest male blood relative of Prophet Mohammed, he was son of Abu Talib, who was the guardian uncle to the orphan Prophet Mohammed. Abu Talib, considered his orphan nephew Prophet Mohammed dearer than his own children. Prophet Mohammed was about 30 years old when Ali Murtada was born to Abu Talib. Ali Murtada is the only person who was born inside Holy Ka’ba. Ali Murtada didn’t open his eyes, until Prophet Mohammed came to see the baby; there in the arms of Prophet Mohammed, Ali opened his eyes for the first time. Likewise, he didn’t also suckle his mother, but when Prophet Mohammed put his saliva in mouth of baby Ali, he took it as first food for himself.

Ali Murtada was like adopted son of Prophet Mohammed and his wife Lady Khadija. Ali Murtada grew under the holy care and love of Prophet Mohammed. This Holy family had always stayed away from idolatry, polytheism and paganism. Ali Murtada was 10 years old when Prophet Mohammed announced his mission. Ali Murtada became the first male to testify for Prophet Mohammed. Initially, God asked Prophet Mohammed to propagate Islam within close clan (Hashmites), Prophet Mohammed arranged a banquet for his clan (Hashmites) and invited them, there he announced his mission. Ali Murtada, a 10 years old boy was first to raise slogan of confirmation for Prophet Mohammed. There exactly Prophet Mohammed had declared that: Ali was his vice-regent. This event is remembered as the event of Dhul-Ashira.

Ali Murtada, always stood by Prophet Mohammed. He underwent hardship of social boycott which the Makkan pagans had imposed upon them. After, death of Abu Talib, when Prophet Mohammed’s life was in open danger, and he was divinely commanded to migrate to Madina, it was Ali Murtada who slept on bed of Prophet Mohammed to disguise Makkan pagans who wanted to kill Prophet Mohamed that night. After migration Imam Ali joined Prophet Mohammed in Madina. He proved himself as champion and hero of Islam in battles of Badr, Uhad, Trench, Khaibar, Hunain etc. When so called great companions ran away from battle-fields, it was Ali Murtada who always stood by Prophet Mohammed. Victory at Khaibar was possible only because of Ali. At event of Tabuk, when Ali was left behind at Madina, Prophet Mohammed had declared to him that: Oh Ali! You are to me as Aaron (Haarun) was to Moses (Musa).

In all these events, the hypocrite companions always envied Ali Murtada. They tried every possible means to degrade Ali, but where themselves degraded all the time. When Prophet Mohammed married away his only biological daughter Fatima Zahra with Ali Murtada, the jealousy in hearts of hypocrite companions reached unimaginable limits. Finally, when Prophet Mohammed announced Ali Murtada’s authority upon people after him, and made Ali Murtada the chief of Muslims at the event of Ghadeer, and took everyone’s allegiance in favour of Ali, the truthful companion’s joy knew no bounds while hypocrite companion’s hearts went underwent burning.

Prophet Mohammed knew he was about to leave this world and had arranged properly for smooth transition of authority to Ali after him by sending Abu Bakr and Umar away from Madina on war campaign that too under leadership of 19 year old general Osama s/o Zaid, so that they adapt to live under leader younger than them. Before they left, Prophet Mohammed on his death bed had asked to let him dictate his will too, it was Umar who knew that the will would go in favour of Ali and convinced people to let Prophet Mohammed rest and make no will, since Holy Qur’an was enough for them after him. Instead of marching forward on campaign they actually halted just outside Madina and refused to advance. They too knew it very well, what they desired. When Prophet Mohammed passed away Umar was first to return, he prohibited people to declare that Prophet Mohammed was no more, since, he knew Abu Bakr was on his way. By the time Abu Bakr came to Madina, Ansaars (Natives of Madina) had started chaos for leadership. In all these, faithful companions remained true to Ali Murtada.

Ali Murtada, on preventive advises from Prophet Mohammed regarding future adopted silence. Fatima Zahra, daughter of Prophet Mohammed was brutally attacked in course of which she too died at young age of around 20, her personal properties too were snatched away by Abu Bakr on pretext that those were state properties. Caliphate kept changing from Abu Bakr to Umar; and from Umar to Uthman. Armies were sent out for political expansion under the pretext of propagation of Islam. Ali Murtada who was the gladiator of Islam in all the battles till then, didn’t take part in any of the battles fought during the era of three Caliphs.

When Uthman was murdered, people came to Ali Murtada and offered him Caliphate. This time Ali Murtada reminded them their previous conditions which they had put in front of him, and how he had rejected those terms and thus chose not to become caliph, earlier. People still wanted Ali Murtada to become Caliph, so Ali Murtada put forth his conditions in front of them. That, he will follow Holy Qur’an, he will follow conventions of Prophet Mohammed but would neither follow conventions of previous caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman, nor would work as per advises of people, but would use his personal intellect. People agreed and started to pay allegiance! This is how Caliphate of Ali Murtada started. Ali Murtada had always been the first spiritual leader (Imam) after Prophet Mohammed for Shia, with his caliphate he also became the fourth Caliph of Sunni.

There were other people like Zubair s/o Awwam and Talha s/o Obaidullah who too aspired to become caliph, Uthman’s murder opened the doors of opportunities for such people. Along with Uthman and Ali Murtada, both Zubair and Talha were also mentioned in Umar’s will from among whom next Caliph after Umar was to be chosen. Ali Murtada had rejected absurd conditions which Uthman had accepted and was made Caliph, now, after Uthman’s murder both Zubair and Talha considered themselves appropriate for caliphate, they even agreed to abide by policies of Abu Bakr and Uthman, which Ali Murtada never agreed to. Zubair was even son in law of 1st caliph Abu Bakr.

Both Zubair and Talha counseled and conspired against Ali Murtada. Zubair had earlier been supporter of Ali Murtada, but when Umar had named him too in his will, he changed his stand since then. They knew it well that they alone would make no difference. Aisha, the widow of Prophet Mohammed and daughter of 1st caliph Abu Bakr, was totally against the nepotism of Uthman during his caliphate and had been his top critic. When Uthman was murdered, Aisha was on pilgrimage to Makka and received the news on her way back. Zubair met Aisha on her way back to Madina. Zubair was Aisha’s brother in law, thus Aisha wanted Zubair to become next caliph. Aisha, needed strong reasons to stand against Ali Murtada.

Mauwiya, the Uthman’s cousin and his governor to Syria, whom Uthman had granted total autonomy from central caliphate, ruled Syria as king. Mauwiya was the son of Abu Sufyan, the Pagan Makkan leader and staunchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed, they both father and son adopted Islam outwardly at the event of conquest of Makka, now, Mauwiya once the staunch enemy of Islam, was appointed as trustee of Islam. Since, he had autonomy of power; he too aspired to become Caliph, not just of Syria but of all Islamic territory.

Marwan, the son in law of Uthman, the person who was exterminated by none other but Prophet Mohammed himself, he too wanted to succeed his father in law as caliph. They all came together formed a pact to rise against Ali Murtada. They wanted to use the pretext of murder of Uthman as sound reason for their actions. They started to blame Ali Murtada directly for murder of Uthman, if not directly, claimed he was passive towards the murderers who they claimed were in Ali Murtada’s men.

Ali Murtada, clearly proved that he was neither behind the murder of Uthman, nor in favour of Uthmans selfish and corrupt rule. Ali Murtada also reminded Aisha that she had no legal right to seek revenge, since Uthman was not from her clan, and asked her to stay away from matter, but Aisha’s real agenda was to see Zubair as Caliph, thus they remained adamant.

Mauwiya, tried to get another companion of Prophet Mohammed by name of Sa’ad s/o Abi Waqas on their side, he always had had rough relations with Ali Murtada, he was also one of option for caliph in Umar’s will. It is worth noting, that though Sa’ad had rough relations with Ali Murtada, he declined to oppose Ali so as to help Mauwiya. He also rejected to be part of their gang, and kept himself away from this tumoil.

Ali Murtada, agreed to do justice for the murder of Uthman, and punish his murderer, but that could be possible only when the complainants accept him as caliph, pay him their allegiance and then seek justice from him. Prior to their allegiance, Ali Murtada was not obliged to deal with their matter. Mauwiya, Zubair, Talha, Marwan and Aisha’s real motives were not justice for Uthman, so they never gave their allegiance as for proper procedure for justice. Instead, they increased their propaganda against Ali Murtada, they even blamed 750 staunch supporters of Ali Murtada as murderers of Uthman, Ali Murtada rejected this proposal that 750 men can directly murder a single person and later could be punished for murder, that too with death sentence.

Ali Murtada never wanted bloodshed & civil war inside the city of Madina, thus, Ali Murtada shifted his capital from Madina to Kufa in Iraq, to consolidate Caliphate. Ali Murtada as Caliph deposed Mauwiya from the post of governor of Syria because of his illegal activities. Mauwiya and others gathered an army and sent it towards Iraq to finish of Ali Murtada.

Aisha, the widow of Prophet Mohammed took the command of army, she symbolically sat on camel. Zubair, Talha and Marwan joint Aisha for the attack, while Mauwiya had sent an army to join them too against Ali Murtada, who was none other than a valid caliph of their time. It was clearly reported to wives of Prophet Mohammed by none other than Prophet Mohammed himself about a certain future, where one of his wife will wage war on Ali Murtada, she would be on guilty side, and dogs of Hawab will bark upon her. This prophecy came true when on the journey dogs surrounded the camel on which Aisha was sitting and started to bark, at once Aisha remembered the prophecy, and asked people to take her back. Marwan and Talha, convinced her that the place was not Hawab, when actually it was Hawab, they bought false witnesses to testify too. Yet Aisha forgot about other points of prophecy, that one will wage war on Ali Murtada, and she will be guilty!

Eventually, their army camped nearby present day Basra, Iraq. When Ali Murtada with his men came to confront them, Ali Murtada sent envoys to Aisha, reminded her that it was neither her legal right to seek revenge for Uthman, specifically when they don’t recognize Ali Murtada as Caliph. Ali Murtada also reminded her of prophecy of Prophet Mohammed, she paid no heeds, Ali Murtada also, informed her about the protocols of Prophet Mohammed’s wives as mentioned in Holy Qur’an, and how it was a trespass of those protocols on part of Aisha.

This famous battle came to be known as battle of Camel in Islamic history. It is a propaganda that some culprits incited the wars after midnight, they all had deliberately came from Madina up to Basra for the very reason to avenge blood of Uthman from Ali Murtada. Aisha, sat on Camel and took active part and lead role in the battle. When it became tense, Ali Murtada asked his son Hasan Mujtaba to cut the seat belt of Aisha’s camel, so as to break the morale of their men. Ali Murtada, had adopted Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr after his father’s death, this Mohammed was treated like a son and was very loyal to Ali Murtada, though he was step brother of Aisha. When the seat fell, Mohammed held Aisha while she fell and prevented her from getting hurt, when people raised chaos that Ali Murtada insulted so called mother, this Mohammed confronted them and informed that since he was brother of Aisha, he can touch and hold Aisha, there was no issue of insult (protocol).

This, falling of Aisha, turned the tables of the battle. When Zubair confronted Ali Murtada on the battle field, Ali Murtada reminded him about how Zubair had supported him after death of Prophet Mohammed. He also reminded him how Prophet Mohammed had prophesied to Zubair, that one day he would wage war on Ali Murtada, this melted the heart of Zubair. Zubair felt remorse and declared that he withdrew from the battle, this could have become a great loss, and thus, Talha instantly killed Zubair when he began to retreat, citing he back-stabbed them. Talha was also a contender for post of Caliph, Marwan wanted to remove this obstacle too, there exactly Marwan killed his own this ally Talha. Now, Aisha was captured, Zubair, Talha were dead, it created chaos and Ali Murtada won decisive victory. Ali Murtada however, sent Aisha back to Madina, with all due respect and protocols. Ali Murtada also ordered his men not to collect any spoils of war from losers. Aisha, thereafter never took part in this activities.

Amr s/o A’as who had been staunch enemy of Islam was now a name sake Muslim, he had been the governor of Egypt and was removed from the post by Uthman, now took asylum with Mauwiya in Syria. He too had desired to rule Egypt as independent Caliph. Mauwiya’s motives were not fulfilled; once again he collected his men for another battle. He himself, Marwan and Amr A’as, all three joined hands against Ali Murtada, they marched against Ali Murtada. This time both forces met at present day Mosul in Iraq, the area was called Siffin and the battle which happened here came to be known by Battle of Siffin.

After a lot of convincing, Ali Murtada became sure of their adamant intentions, fierce battles were fought at Siffin. Mauwiya sensed his eminent loss and offered A’as independent governorate of Egypt, if he somehow sows discord among Ali’s men. When Battle was on final phases, Amr A’as came under direct attack of Ali Murtada during the battle and was about to be killed, when he took out all his cloth and stood naked, as he was sure Ali Murtada would never attack a naked men though in battle field. Amr A’as tried another trick, he asked his men to raise copies of Holy Qur’an on spears and shout that: we will decide by Holy Book.

His trick proved successful, Ali Murtada’s army got divided into two factions. One faction wanted to fight and bring end to this problem since talks were already over, but other faction which were not loyal to Ali Murtada but had joined him only to oppose Mauwiya, now wanted to halt the battle when it was about to turn into a victory, Ali Murtada tried to convince them that to continue fighting was best option, yet they were adamant. With broken heart Ali Murtada asked to halt the battle, Mauwiya and Amr breathed a sigh of relief. Both sides now decided to set up arbitration and head to send two men one from each side to decide the terms and settlement.

When Ali Murtada agreed, the faction of his own army which forced Ali Murtada to stop the battle, now accused Ali Murtada of going against Holy Qur’an, they believed arbitration by two men was against Holy Qur’an, Ali Murtada tried to convince them that it was not against Holy Qur’an, and they were the same men who wanted to stop the battle. These men had their own motives, when they found they could not use Ali Murtada to their own advantages, they raised the slogan: Only God can judge, and left the camp with vow to fight both factions soon, they came to be known as Kharjites (those who leave away).

Mauwiya sent Amr A’as as his arbitrator, since he has seen latter’s trickeries in the battles. Ali Murtada selected Maalik Ashtar his loyal companion. Shia men from Ali Murtada’s camp had no issue with Maalik but Non-Shia men in Ali Murtada’s army who didn’t considered Ali to be spiritual leader objected. Ali Murtada as option asked Abdulah s/o Abbas his cousin; he too was rejected by Non-Shia members of Ali’s men. Finally, Ali Murtda asked them to select a member but he should be bold enough. They selected Abu Musa Ashari, a critic of Ali, Ali Murtada objected him but seeing people adamant gave terms which he was to abide by during arbitration.

Now, both Abu Musa Ashari and Amr A’as met. The meeting was held privately without any third person. Amr convinced Abu Musa that both Ali and Mauwiya were troubles and thus both should be removed, and general people should be allowed to choose any other person apart from these two for post of caliph. Abu Musa had been the governor of Kufa during Uthman era too aspired to become caliph. Abu Musa felt that once the caliphate became vacant, he could convince people to make him caliph. Actually, Abu Musa had fallen into the trap of Amr A’as.

When the date for declaration came, people gathered in the mosque. Amr A’as announced that both have found the solution and would declare one by one, Amr A’as asked Abu Musa to announce his decision first as arbitrator from Ali’s side then he would do. Abu Musa Ashari, went up the pulpit and declared that as an arbitrator he removes Ali Murtada from post of caliph just as he removes ring from finger, he symbolically removed a ring, he disposed Mauwiya as well, but he was never Mauwiya’s arbitrator. Amr soon climbed the pulpit and declared his say. He told people since Abu Musa had disposed Ali Murtada, he as arbitrator from Mauwiya’s side would impose Mauwiya to the caliphate. Abu Musa had heated argument with Amr but their judgements had been given.

Ali Murtada had send Abu Musa with term which he was asked not to breach during arbitration, but Abu Musa had broken the terms themselves thus his arbitration stood void. Ali Murtada rejected to accept either the stupidity of Abu Musa or treachery of A’as. Amr A’as was rewarded by Mauwiya with the governorate of Egypt for the chaos he created among Ali Murtada’s men. There were de facto three caliphs now, Mauwiya ruled Syria, Amr ruled Egypt, other part were under Ali Murtada’s control.

Meanwhile, the third forum of Kharjites by then had formed themselves into an army, and declared war on Ali Murtada. These Kharjites claimed to oppose both Ali and Mauwiya but waged war only on Ali Murtada, this itself proves that they too were mere pawns of Mauwiya. They sent army against Ali Murtada at Nehrawan, Iraq. Ali Murtada met them at Nehrawan, fought against them too and amazingly almost all were killed accept five or six who ran away. Ali Murtada’s army lost just few men in this battle. Kharjites now became a sect with their own beliefs, one among those were that people who don’t follow their sect were sinner and must be killed, they started another terrorist front apart from Ummayyad, they killed many people in cold blood.

Ali Murtada as a young man had fought all battle during the time of Prophet Mohammed, after Prophet Mohammed during the era of caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthaman this brave soldier never took part in any battles (conquest of Iran, Syria, Egypt), which shows such conquests were never for sake of propagation of Islam but were merely political expansions. After thirty years when Ali Murtada was an old man, he once again unsheathed his sword at battles of camel, Siffin and Nehrawan, this shows, Ali only fought in those battles which he considered to be for sake of protection of pure Islam. Ali Murtada after all these battle successfully separated true Islam from terrorist brand of Islam.

Ali Murtada couldn’t get enough time to run caliphate smoothly because of all the bloody battles he had to fight, though whatever little time he got, he set up the best administration, law and order of his time. His policies were highlighted even at United Nations, for the solution of Arab world in modern times.

Ali Murtada, lost many of his loyal friends, he lost Ammaar Yaasir, a very trustworthy companion of Prophet Mohammed at battle of Siffin. He lost his adopted son Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr in Egypt, whom Mauwiya had ordered to be killed, chopped and burnt openly. He lost Maalik Ashtar his loyal friend who was poisoned by Mauwiya and A’as at Egypt.

Now, Ali Murtada, seeing people not ready to fight anymore and kept on leaving his army settled at Kufa, Iraq. Kharjites, were adamant to kill Ali Murtada and knew that it was impossible to confront Ali in battle. So, they sent an assassin in disguise, he was asked to hit Ali Murtada with poisoned dripped sword while he was in prostration. It is propaganda that two Kharjites who were sent people to kill Mauwiya and A’as, but they missed killing them, actually they were mere pawns and were bribed by Mauwiya to create a story.

Finally, the Kharjite by name Abdur Rehman Muljim came to Kufa, and on 19th Ramadan of 40 AH (661 AD) stabbed Ali Murtada on back of neck while he was in prayer, in prostration. Ali Murtada, now fatally wounded declared his will. He considered his assassin too in his will, people should not instantly kill him for murder, if he (Ali Murtada) recovered he will do what he deems fit, but if he succumbs then only one stab should be blown upon Muljim, since he too had given Ali a single stab. If after single stab he continues to live he should be allowed to live. Ali also asked people not to tie Muljim in rope nor keep him in hungry in custody.

Ali Murtada passed on the mantle of Imaamat (Divinely appointed leadership) upon his elder son Hasan. Hasan became the second Imam for Shia. Ali Murtada passed away with words: I swear by the Lord of Ka’ba that I triumphed. He became a martyr on 21st Ramadan two days later. Ali Murtada, was well aware of Ummayyads despised activities of digging grave of their opponents and then show disgrace to corpses and therefore like Lady Fatima Zahra, his wife and daughter of Prophet Mohammed, Ali Murtada too willed that he should be buried secretly. Only his two eldest sons Hasan and Husain carried the coffin from Kufa to present day Najaf.

Ali Murtada’s grave remained secret, and only Shia Imams (Aimmaah) knew the specific location of his grave. Times changed Ummayads vanished away, later Abbasids ruled, and during an incident the Sixth Shia Imam Jaa’far Saadiq informed the ruling Abbasid Caliph Haarun Rashid about the grave, who made the first tomb there. Abbasids, were never followers of Ahlul Bait (Family of Prophet Mohammed), but used their names for their own advantages.

When Hasan Mujtaba became the second Imam for Shia as well as fifth Sunni Caliph, Mauwiya continued his evil.


Oh Allah! Peace and Salutations be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.


Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview 


Friday, 13 May 2016

Major Pilgrimage (Ziyaraat) sites in Shia Islam

Topic 43:

1) Masjid ul Haraam, Makka, Saudi Arabia



The Masjid ul Haraam is the holiest shrine of Islam, the mosque houses Ka'ba which is epi-centre (Qibla) of Muslim worship. Ka'ba contain Hajr Aswad (Black Stone). Ka'ba beside being epi-centre (Qibla) is also the birthplace of 1st Imam Ali Murtada. The mosque also houses Maqaam Ibrahim (Station of Abraham) which contain a stone with Prophet Ibrahim/ Abraham's footprints. There is also Hatim a semi-circular pen beside Ka'ba it is considered to be part of it, Shia Islam consider it to contain graves of Prophet Ismail/ Ishmael and his mother Hajira/ Hagar. There is also well of Zamzam nearby. Hillocks of Safa and Marwa, which are termed as Symbols of God (Shaai Allah) are attached with Masjid ul Haram.

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2) Jannatul Mo'alla, Makka, Saudi Arabia



Jannatul Mo'alla graveyard in Makka houses graves of Prophet's ancestors. Both Prophet's uncle and Imam Ali's father Abu Talib is also burried here. Mother Khadija wife of Prophet Mohammed is also buried here. Many other relatives of Prophet Mohammed inclusive of his father Abdullah, grandfather Abdul Mutallib, son Baby Qasim and many more are buried here. Saudi Arabian government desecrated all tombs in 1925.

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3) Cave of Hira, Mount Al Noor, Makka, Saudi Arabia



Cave of Hira, located atop Mount Al Noor in Makka is the sanctum where Prophet Mohammed used to observe reclusion. It was here that Holy Qur'an was revealed upon Prophet Mohammed all at once in Laylatul Qadr (Night of Authority).

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4) Arafaat, Makka, Saudi Arabia



Plain of Arafaat, located nearby Makka, is a very important location related to Hajj (Pilgrimage).

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5) Masjid Nabawi, Madina, Saudi Arabia



Masjid un Nabawi is the second ever built masjid and Prophet Mohammed himself laboured in it's construction. Now, Masjid Nabawi houses holy grave of Prophet Mohammed.

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6) Jannatul Baqi, Madina, Saudi Arabia



Jannatul Baqi graveyard in Madina houses graves of Lady Fatima tuz Zahra daughter of Prophet Mohammed. Grave of 2nd Shia Imam Hasan, grave of 4th Shia Imam Ali Zainul Abideen, grave of 5th Shia Imam Mohammed Baaqir and grave of 6th Shia Imam Ja'far Saadiq. Many other relatives of Prophet Mohammed along with his son Baby Ibrahim and many more are buried here. Saudi Arabian government desecrated all tombs in 1925.
 

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7) Masjid Quba, Quba, Saudi Arabia



Situated in suburb of Madina, this Masjid is first ever Masjid built, in which Prophet Mohammed himself laboured.

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8) Masjid Qiblatain, Madina, Saudi Arabia



Located nearby Madina, this Masjid is where direction to change Qibla (Epi-centre) of worship was ordered to be changed from Baitul Muqaddas (Today's Golden Dome) in Jerusalem to Ka'ba in Makka.

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9) Battlefield of Badr, Badr, Saudi Arabia



Badr, located in Hijaz region is where first battle between Muslims and Pagan Arabs (Ommayyads) took place, it houses graves of martyrs of Badr.

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10) Battlefield of Uhad, Uhad, Saudi Arabia



Uhad, located in Hijaz region is where second battle between Muslims and Pagan Arabs
(Ommayyads) took place, it too houses graves of martyrs including the grave of Prophet Mohammed's martyred uncle Hamza.

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11) Ghadeer Khumm Valley, Juhfa, Saudi Arabia



Ghadeer Khumm Valley, located near Juhfa on away to Madina from Makka is of utmost significance to Shia Islam, it was here Prophet Mohammed declared the wilayat (authority) of Imam Ali Murtada as legal heir of Prophet Mohammed in Islam. It was here that just after Imam Ali's authority was declared that Prophet Mohammed declared Islam to have attained perfection.

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12) Masjid Kufa, Kufa, Iraq



A very important mosque within Shia Islam, it was here that 1st Imam Ali Murtada was martyred while he was in prostration leading the prayers. The mosque also houses graves of great martyrs like Muslim s/o Aqeel (Cousin of 3rd Imam Husain), Hani s/o Urwa (Imam Husain's supporter) and Mukhtar Saqafi (Avenger of Imam Husain's murderers).

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13) Rauda Imam Ali Murtada, Najaf, Iraq




The 1st Shia Imam Ali Murtada was burried in Najaf after his martyrdom in Kufa. The tomb also houses graves of Prophet Aadam/ Adam and Prophet Nuh/ Noah

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14) Rauda Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq



Imam Husain the 3rd Shia Imam, his tomb also contain graves of his sons Ali Akbar, Baby Ali Asghar, brothers and other relatives along with other martyrs of Karbala.

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15) Rauda Abbas, Karbala, Iraq



Abbas s/o Imam Ali Murtada and brother of Imam Husain, the flag bearer of Imam Husain as well as his Commander in Chief, is buried in shrine some distance apart in front of Imam Husain's shrine.

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16) Rauda Kaazmain, Kaazmain, Iraq



The Kaazmain Shrine houses graves of 7th Shia Imam Musa Kaazim and his grandson 9th Shia Imam Mohammed Jawwaad Taqi.

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17) Rauda Askariyain, Samarra, Iraq



The Askariyain Shrine was recently bombed by terrorists and totally destroyed, however rebuilt now. The Shrine houses graves of 10th Shia Imam Ali Hadi Naqi and his son 11th Shia Imam Hasan Askari.

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18) Maqam Sardab, Samarra, Iraq




A shrine it has no graves, rather it is the location from where the last & final 12th Shia Imam Mohammed Mahdi underwent occultation (Ghaybah) after martyrdom of his father 11th Shia Imam Hasan Askari , the shrine is located near Askariyain shrine.

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19) Rauda Imam Ali Reda, Mashhad, Iran



The shrine houses grave of 8th Shia Imam Ali Reda.

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20) Rauda Masuma, Qom, Iran



The Shrine is situated in Qom and houses the grave of Lady Fatima Masuma the sister of 8th Shia Imam Ali Reda.

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21) Masjid Jamkaran, Qom, Iran



Masjid Jamkaran in Jamkaran locality near Qom is associated with presence of 12th Shia Imam Mohammed Mahdi, it is believed that 12th Shia Imam Mohammed Mahdi living under occultation (Ghaybah) does visits this mosque.

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22) Rauda Sayyeda Zainab, Damascus, Syria



Lady Zainab is elder grand-daughter of Prophet Mohammed, elder daughter of Lady Fatima Zahra and 1st Shia Imam Ali Murtada, sister of 2nd and 3rd Shia Imams (Aimmah). She was taken captive by Ummayyads after Battle of Karbala, imprisoned and tortured along with 4th Shia Imam and other family members.


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23) Rauda Ruqaiyya/ Sakina, Damascus, Syria



3rd Shia Imam Husain's 5 years old baby daughter was taken prisoner by Ummayyads after Battle of Karbala, she was bought here, she passed away while in dungeon due to atrocities upon her, this prison is now a shrine is housing her grave.

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24) Bab Saghir Cemetery, Damascus, Syria



The cemetery houses numerous graves, prominent among them is Lady Umm Kulsum's grave the younger grand-daughter of Prophet Mohammed, the younger sister of Lady Zainab. Lady Fizza the maid of Lady Fatima Zahra, who was referred to as mother by children of Lady Fatima Zahra is burried here. Bilal Ribah a loyal companion of Prophet Mohammed is also buried here. There are many other graves of importance here.

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25) Masjid Aqsa/ Baitul Muqaddas, Jerusalem, Palestine 





Baitul Muqaddas (Holy House) is a santuary and contain Qubbat Sukhr (Dome of Rock/ Golden Dome) which was previous Qibla (Epi-centre) of worship, it was from here Prophet Mohammed ascended in Lailatul Me'raaj (Night of Ascent), Masjid Aqsa (Silver Dome) is mosques situated in front within the complex.

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Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Zakat/ Zakaat/ Charity in Shia Islam

Zakaat/ Charity is the third branch/ practice among Fur'u Deen/ Branches of Faith in Shia Islam. The sole purpose of Zakaat/ Charity in Shia Islam is to uplift the financial crises of needy people. In Shia Islam motive of Zakaat/ Charity does not profess social, developmental works etc.

There are two types of Zakaat/ Charity in Shia Islam, one is Waajib/ Obligatory and the second one is Mustahab/ Recommended. Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Charity has everything fixed and defined, called Nisaab, which includes types of wealth, form of wealth, amount of wealth, tenure of possession, and rates of deduction. It is reported that Prophet Mohammed himself gave very clear and precise definitions and instructions about Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory charity. The other type is Mustahab Zakaat/ Recommended Charity which includes any item which could be weighted; rate, tenure of possession is upon owner’s discretion.

Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat include only nine items; along with their rates are listed below:

1) Gold, only in form of currency coins, weighing 69.12 gm, personally possessed for one year. Even if gold forms a percentage of coin’s material, it becomes liable for Zakaat, with respect to its percentage. Any other form of gold i.e. jewellery etc is exempt from Waajib Zakaat/ obligatory charity. Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat would be 2.5% of the total value.



2) Silver, only in form of currency coins, weighing 483.88 gm, personally possessed for one year. Even if silver forms a percentage of coin’s material, it becomes liable for Zakaat, with respect to its percentage. Any other form of silver i.e. jewellery etc is exempt from Waajib Zakaat/ obligatory charity. Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat would be 2.5% of the value.


3) Wheat, only in dried form, weighing 847 kg, personally possessed for one year. If irrigated with rain then 10% of the total value, if irrigated through other means then 5% of total value, still if both methods were used then 7.5% of the total value. On such item, Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat is to be paid only once.

4) Barley, only in dried form, weighing 847 kg, personally possessed for one year. If irrigated with rain then 10% of the total value, if irrigated through other means then 5% of total value, still if both methods were used then 7.5% of the total value. On such item, Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat is to be paid only once.

5) Dates, only in dried form, weighing 847 kg, personally possessed for one year. If irrigated with rain then 10% of the total value, if irrigated through other means then 5% of total value, still if both methods were used then 7.5% of the total value. On such item, Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat is to be paid only once.

6) Raisins, after dried from grapes, weighing 847 kg, personally possessed for one year. If irrigated with rain then 10% of the total value, if irrigated through other means then 5% of total value, still if both methods were used then 7.5% of the total value. On such item, Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Zakaat is to be paid only once.

7) Camels grazed on natural pastures and not fed privately, if minimum 5 of them are owned for one year. A sheep for 5 camels, 2 sheep for 10 camels, check details for further limits with reliable sources.

8) Bulls, Cows, Buffaloes grazed on natural pastures and not fed privately, if minimum 30 of them are owned for one year. A two year old male calf for 30 such animals and a 3 year old female calf for 40 such animals, checks details for further limits with reliable sources.

9) Sheep and goats grazed on natural pastures and not fed privately, if minimum 40 of them are owned for one year. A sheep for 40 such animals and 2 sheep for 121 such animals, checks details for further limits with reliable sources.

Other forms of wealth were available even during the time of Prophet Mohammed, yet He Himself fixed only the above content. Thus, to fix anything beyond it would be a trespass. However, one is free to extract charity from following sources:

Mustahab Zakaat/ Recommended Charity depend upon owner’s discretion. Any item which could be weighed could be considered for payment, no tenure of possession, no rates of extraction are fixed; owner is free to pay any amount on anything. Items could include gold or silver jewellery, other grains i.e. rice, maize etc, cash, stocks, houses, land, metals, cars etc. The owner, if decides could pay 2, 4, 10, 20 50, 100% value of such items.

Zakaat/ Charity needs to be declared before disposal, one should not give Zakaat/ Charity silently to the recipients. Zakaat/ Charity can be given to poor person, a destitute person, to free a person from slavery, indebted person to repay debts, stranded travellers, check further details with reliable sources. Waajib Zakaat/ Obligatory Charity as per Shia Islam could only be given to Shia Muslims, however, one is free from such requirement in Mustahab Zakaat/ Recommended Charity to be disposed, it could be given to whoever owner considers fit to receive.

There is an another Zakaat al Fitra/ Charity for end of fast, with the sunset of month of Ramadan this charity becomes obligatory for one’s self and all dependents, one must pay 3 kg of one’s staple food (wheat, rice etc) or its value for each person to the poor.

Those defined as descendants of family of Prophet Mohammed are forbidden from receiving any charity. One cannot give charity to those whose responsibility lies on one’s own self.

Above content is brief description of Zakaat/ Charity, check further details from reliable sources.



Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.




Wednesday, 1 July 2015

Prophet Mohammed In Shia Islam

Topic 41: 


In Shia Islam Prophet Mohammed is Noor/ Celestial Luminescence. This Noor/ Celestial Luminescence is first among creation of Allah/ God. All other created stuffs are created as subordinate of this Noor/ Celestial Luminescence, and as the first creation, this Noor recognised the Absolute Supreme Allah/ God as its Creator, this Noor was the first to worship Him.

Among created existence many universes exist, in them many worlds exist, and every world has this Noor upon itself as Rahmah/ Grace by Supreme Creator. Out of immense love by Supreme Creator for this Noor, which recognised and worshipped the Supreme Creator, this Noor became the cause for all subordinate creations to be created, so that subordinate creations too should recognise the best creation, this ‘Noor’.

This Noor split into many, subordinate to one another as separated, yet Wahid/ One on high celestial arena. From this Noor of Prophet Mohammed split the Noor of Imam Ali and Noor of Fatima Zahra, from their Noor split the Noor of Imam Hasan, Imam Husain, from these Noor split the Noor of Imam Sajjad and so on up to Noor of Imam Mahdi, these are 14 Masumeen/ infallibles of Shia Islam, best creation of Allah/ God. When this Noor spread it is 14, when they join they become One/ Wahid Noor. They are separable as they are Wahid/ One, One which could be operated in maths, multiplied, divided, added, subtracted, it could become from 1 to 2 to 14, and from 14 to 1. Only Allah/ God alone is Ahad/ Absolute One, One which cannot be operated with maths, it remains One!

On this Earth they appeared in form of Prophet Mohammed and infallibles, in human form with many human qualities, yet they differed on many occasion and revealed their beyond human aspects. Shia Islam preaches many worlds exist, there are many Adams, one for each world, but in all worlds Noor of Prophet Mohammed is same, thus their existence is there in all worlds, in every world Prophet Mohammed is a Rahmah/ Grace, in every world Infallibles are same.

Shia Islam preaches Prophet Mohammed is chief of all creation, his Noor is Ashraful Makhluq/ Best Creation. Prophet Mohammed is chief of all Rasul/ messengers and Ambiya/ prophets. Prophet Mohammed is chief and first among 14 Masummeen/ Infallibles. Prophet Mohamed is the last messenger and the last prophet of Allah/ God in this world, no more divine revelations, and canon would come upon this world after Holy Qur’an which was revealed upon Prophet Mohammed.

Shia Islam preaches Prophet Mohammed was born as a human in this world, he was also born as a prophet, which he always had been. Shia Islam preaches that the whole genealogy from his father Abdullah to grandfather Abdul Mutallib right upto Adam, all were prophets, because as per Shia Islam a prophet’s father is always a prophet. Holy Qur’an describes the case in which Prophet Ibrahim/ Abraham is seeking to pray for his pagan father, yet the same Holy Qur’an elsewhere shows that children of Prophet Yaqub/ Jacob referred to Prophet Ismail/ Ishmael as their father, which the latter never was, thus Prophet Ibrahim/ Abraham was also seeking to pray for his childhood guardian, a chief and referred to him as father.

Shia Islam preaches Prophet Mohammed was never born in normal human pattern, he was never born out of najasah/ impurity as we are born, Shia Islam preaches infallibles are born in pure manner, they are actually revealed from their parents. Infallibles are always protected from najasah/ impurity. Shia Islam preaches that nothing najis/ impure of normal human phenomena applies to infallibles. Holy Qur’an in Ayat Tathir/ Verse of Purity has declared to keep Infallibles/ Masumeen away from Najasah/ Impurity, and keep them Taahir/ Pure.

In Shia Islam to be precise, anything which a normal human does, or happens to a normal human which is Najis/ Impure then Infallibles/ Masumeen are free from that system, course or action. Prophet Mohammed never had a shadow; he left no footmarks on sand, yet made mark on stones. As per Shia Islam Masumeen/ Infallibles never defecate, urinate or become impure. Fire cannot burn nor can they get drown. Their bodies don’t get decomposed.

In Shia Islam, Prophet Mohammed is everything except God, he himself is a creation but different from any other creation, he knows all things, has control over all things, he knows all sciences, languages, past/ present/ future. As per Shia Islam, Infallibles also don’t have times and place barrier. In Shia Islam, Prophet Mohammed is chief among infallibles, thus, free from mistake, error and sin, thus, also cannot die a natural death. Infallibles are protected miraculously if it really becomes a requirement to establish Deen/ faith; else infallibles don’t use their knowledge of unseen or their authority for their personal protection. More on: Prophet Mohammed & Infallibles’ Unseen Knowledge

In Shia Islam, Allah/ God is beyond any comprehension and any understanding, whatever we understand Him, we have understood nothing, He could only be such as such comprehended as human mind could comprehend, a level comes where human mind questions itself beyond that what? Infallibles of Shia Islam have forbid plunging beyond that as one would never achieve anything.

Allah/ God in Shia Islam could be understood only through His Ashraful Makhluq/ the Best Creation, the Noor/ Celestial Luminescence of Prophet Mohammed. Infallibles give address and understanding as to what and how God is! No words, no sentence, no language could define ‘God’. It is only the personalities of Infallibles which make us able to begin our understanding of what God could be. Thus in Shia Islam, Prophet Mohammed and other Masumeen/ Infallibles are address of God.

They have authority on affairs but they are not supreme creators, they are Best Creation of Highest Creator. When they being a creation themselves become creators of things which are more subordinate to them, with their being this creator we can comprehend what the Creator of creators would be, else it is absurd to think what creation itself is. Thus, is the case with other attributes of God that are Rahmah/ Grace, Rizq/ Provision etc.

In chapter Jum’a/ Friday, Holy Qur’an declares ‘Allahu khairur raziqeen’, which uses the term ‘raziq + een’, it is a plural form of provider. The verse translates to ‘God is best among providers’, who these providers are, among whom God is best? The verse doesn’t imply polytheism, rather declares the authority He has bestowed upon his chosen creation. Since, God is beyond comprehension; it is through His creation, through their provisions, that the provision of God could be comprehended, these personalities give address to every attribute of God.

It is such a folly and stupidity to praise the greatness of God with lower aspects and lower creations, which are not even significant when whole or even if a minimal view of creation is taken. What we humans understand about universe, what our knowledge has confirmed about this universe, keeping that in mind, would it be significant to say that God made Earth, God sends down the rains, he feeds whales etc? What is the size of whole Earth in our Solar system, in this galaxy? Any up-keeping or maintenance of Earth appears absurd for Him who we call as God.

In Shia Islam, Prophet Mohammed and other Masumeen/ Infallible have authority to create, sustain, provide etc. As per Shia Islam, all explanations using words and languages are just rudimentary for explaining God, but for humans, languages and words are used, which don’t describe Him but makes it easier for human to be able to recognise Him. He had been a Hidden Treasure and wished to be revealed thus he created Noor/ Celestial Luminescence of Prophet Mohammed as His creation, which recognised and worshipped Him.

Imam Ali, when asked about to what level ‘they’ could be praised, stated: First assume for Us a Creator, then say anything in our praise, it will never be a lie, also, except God say Us anything befitting you like to, it will not be a lie. Thus according to Shia Islam, no matter how much you applaud Prophet Mohammed and other Masumeen/ Infallible one can never perfectly describe them as to what they really are, yet one is sure enough that they are never God nor have any share in His Supreme divinity, Prophet Mohammed and Masumeen/ Infallible are worshipper of Him. Imam Ali on another occasion forbade a person from considering him divine by saying: ‘Don’t you see me prostrating to God?’ In Shia Islam, Allah/ God is praised by saying: He is God and creator of Mohammed and Ali, how would God be!





Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Saturday, 2 May 2015

Required recitations for Prayers/ Salah/ Namaz in Shia Islam

Main Topic: How to perform Salah/ Namaz/ prayers as per Shia Islam

Holy Qur’an, Surah 01, Al Faatiha (Chapter 01, The Opening Chapter):  

The Chapter is reffered to as 'Sabta Masani (Often repeated)'  elsewhere in Holy Qur'an, recitation of this chapter is required in the first two cycle/rakaah during Prayers/ Salaah/ Namaz.

1) Bism Illah Ir Rahmaan Ir Rahiim
(In the name of God the Gracious the Merciful)
2) Al Hamdu Lillahi Rabb Il Aalamiin
(Blessed is God the Lord of universe)
3) Ar Rahmaan Ir Rahiim
(The Gracious the Merciful)
4) Maaliki Yaum Id Diin
(King of the day of religion)
5) Iyyaaka Na’budu Wa Iyyaaka Nastaiin
(We worship you and we seek you for help)
6) Ihdin As Siraat Al Mustaqiim
(Keep us on straight path)
7) Siraat Allazina An’amta Alayhim Ghair Il Maghdubi Alayhim Wa La Addaallin
(Path of those who were granted awards not of those who earned your anger and niether of mislead)

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Holy Qur’an, Surah 97, Al Qadr (Chapter 97, The Authority): 

This chapter 'Al Qadr (The Authority)' talks about The Night of Authority which is 23rd night of the month of Ramadan according to Shia Islam, it was this night in which Whole of Holy Qur'an was revealed upon Prophet Mohammed in the cave of Hira, for more on this as per Shia Islamic view 'click here'. 

0) Bismillah Ir Rahman Ir Rahim
(In the name of God the Gracious the Merciful)
1) Inna Anzalna Hu Fii Laylat Il Qadr
(Surely, We revealed it in the Night of Authority)
2) Wa Maa Adraaka Maa Laylat Ul Qadr
(And what to explain, what the Night of Authority is!)
3) Laylat Ul Qadri Khairu Min Alfi Shahr
(Night of Authority is better than a thousand months)
4) Tanazzul Ul Malaaikatu Wa Ruhu Fiha Bi Izni Rabbihim Min Kulli Amr
(In it descends the angels and the Spirit with permission of Lord, for all affairs)
5) Salaamun Hiya Hatta Matlayi Il Fajr
(In it is Peace till the dawn)


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Holy Qur’an, Surah 108, Al Kausar (Chapter 108, The Abundance):

Basic meaning of Arabic word 'Kausar' is abundance. Sons of Prophet Mohammed died in infancy and pagans started to taunt Prophet Mohammed as barren (childless), thus, with his death Islam would also end. God gave glad tidings to Prophet Mohammed about the birth of pious daughter Fatima Zahra and referred to her as 'Kausar' to signify that her progeny would abundantly multiply and family of Prophet Mohammed along with Islam will continue, it will be the taunters who would die childless.
Nahr, in the second verse refer to 'Rafa Yadain (Raising Hands)' whenever Greatness of God is declared in prayers by saying 'Allahu Akbar'. Another meaning of this word is sacrifice of camel, which is slaughtered in a different manner.


0) Bismillah Ir Rahman Ir Rahim
(In the name of God the Gracious the Merciful)
1) Inna Aa’tainaak Al Kausar
(Surely, We have granted you the Kausar)
2) Fasalli Lirabbika Wa Nahr
(So, pray to your Lord and do Nahr)
3) Inna Shaani’aka Huw Al Abtar
(Surely, your enemy is he who is barren)


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Holy Qur’an, Surah 112, Al Ikhlaas/ Tauhiid (Chapter 112, the Purity/ Absolute Monotheism):

0) Bismillah Ir Rahmaan Ir Rahiim

(In the name of God the Gracious the Merciful)
1) Qul Hu Allahu Ahad
(Say: He the God is One)
2) Allah Hus Samad
(God is absolutely Independent)
3) Lam Yalid Wa Lam Yulad
(Neither begets nor is begotten)
4) Wa Lam Yakun Lahu Kufuwan Ahad
(And none is equal to this One) 


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Preferable Qunut (Supplication):


Rabbana! Aatina Fid Duniya Hasanatau Wa Fil Aakhirati Hasanatau Wa Kina Azaab An Naar 
(My Lord! Grant me good in this world and good in the end and safeguard me from torment of fire)

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Tashahud/ Declaration of Faith:

Ash’hadu An Laa Ilaaha Il Allahu Wa Ahdahu Laa Sharika Lahu, Wa Ash’hadu Anna Mohammadan Abduhu Wa Rasuluh
(I testify that none is deity except God and He is One and has no partners, and I testify that Mohammed is His servant and Messenger)


Third Tashahud/ Declaration of Faith required by many but not all Shia Muslims:

Wa Ash’hadu Anna Amir Ul Momineena Aliyun Wali Allah 
(And I testify that the Commander of faithful Ali is viceroy of God)

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Taslim/ Salaam/ Salutations:

Assalaamu Alaika Ayyuhan Nabiyyu Wa Rahmat Ullahi Wa Barkaat Hu, Assalaamu Alaina Wa Ala Ibaad Illahis Soaalihiin, Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmat Ullahi Wa Barkaat 
(O Prophet! God’s peace, blessing and grace be upon you, God’s peace be upon us, and upon those who perform prayers and upon pious servants of God, God's peace blessing and grace be upon you/ believers)

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Tasbihaat Al Arba/ Four Praises:

Subhaan Allahi wa Alhamdu Lillahi wa Laa ilaaha il Allahu wa Allahu Akbar
(Glory be to God and Praises be to God and none is deity except God and God is Great)




 
Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.