Saturday 11 May 2019

Quran1 Surah Fatiha Tarjuma Anuwad in Simple Roman Urdu Hindi

Surah 1: 

Al Faatiha (Shuruwat)

1. Ye Allah ke naam se shuru hota hai jo bohot meherbaan (dayawaan) aur reham wala (dayalu) hai.

2. Sab taarif Allah ke liye hai jo har ek kaainaat (bhrammand) ka palne wala hai.

3. Jo boht meherbaan (dayawaan) aur reham wala (dayalu) hai.

4. Jo mazhab (dharm) ke din ka badshah (samraat) hai.

5. Hum teri ibadat (puja) karte hai aur tujh se madad mangte hai.

6. Hume sidhe raste par banaaye rakh.

7. Un logo ka rasta jinko tune inaam diya, unka rasta nahi jinhone tujhe naaraz (krodhit) kiya aur unka rasta bhi nahi jo bhatak chuke hai.

Friday 10 August 2018

Qurbaani, Dabiha or Sacrifice in Shia Islam

Topic 49:

Qurbaani, Dabiha (Zabiha) is among the highest form of devotion to God as per Shia Islam, and thus is also highly recommended. Hajj (Pilgrimage) is the fifth branch of religion (Furu ad Deen), and Qurbaani is essential part of it.

Patriarch Prophet Ibraahim (Abraham) as devotion to God’s command had offered his son Prophet Ismaail (Ishmael) for sacrifice, the son was miraculously replaced with a ram. This devotion of him is where the concept of Qurbaani takes root from. His action became the basis of abolish of the custom of cruel human sacrifices which was quiet rampant during those times.

Opponents of sacrifice always propose a stupid question that does God need food etc? Holy Qur’an has specifically answered this stupidity by saying that neither the blood of animal nor its meat reaches God, it is only the intentions of the person who sacrifices the animal and the person’s sincerity that reaches God. 

Apart from Hajj (pilgrimage), Shia Islam also promotes sacrifices upon those who are not on pilgrimage, thus, around the world Qurbani is practiced, on the 10th, 11th and 12th day of Islamic last month Dhul Hajja. Sacrifice is essential for a pilgrim but for others it is recommended.

Shia Islam has set up conditions and requirements for Qurbaani with great details:

Only permitted animals, only animals not birds are allowed for Qurbaani,

Only domesticated animals are allowed, wild animals are not allowed for Qurbani,

Camels (both male female), Bulls, Cows, Buffaloes (both male female), Goats (both male female), Sheep (both male female) etc are animals which can be offered for sacrifice,

According to Shia Islam, the sacrificial animal should not be a personally domestic or personally pet animal,

It is narrated from 6th Shia Imam Ja’far Saadiq that the animal should be purchased after the month of Dhul Hajja has set in or started,

The female animal should not be visibly pregnant, nor should the animal have a milk feeding baby,

The male animals should not be castrated; castrated animals are recommended by Sunni but are not fit for sacrifice in Shia Islam,

Animals should not have any defects like damaged eyes, lame, broken legs, broken teeth, broken horns, cut ears, cut tails, damaged testicles or any other damages or defects,

Camels should be at least five years old,

Cows, Bulls, Buffaloes, Goats should be at least two years old (when two front lower teeth are grown out),

Sheep should be at least one year old,

After purchase highest amount of care should be given to such animals as in food, water, shelter, medicine and comfort,

Animals should not face any trauma before their slaughter, not even a knife should be shown to such animals,

Each Haaji (pilgrims) has to offer one animal, but non-pilgrims can do collective sacrifices,

Animals should be comfortably bought at sacrificial place,

No animal should be sacrificed in front (no visibility) of another animal,

Water should be given to animal before sacrifice, its drinking water is not necessary,

Animals should be lied upon swiftly and be faced to Qibla (Ka’aba, Makka),

Iron or its alloy knife should be used, knife should be very sharp and very smooth, serrated knife is prohibited,

Person who offers sacrifice, should try to slaughter the animal himself, if not then by other competent person,

Bismillaah, Allahu Akbar should be recited by the person who slaughters, the person should have niyyaah (intention) for slaughter while the recitation and slaughter,

All other animals except camels should be slaughtered (Dabiha or Zabiha) smoothly and swiftly by cutting the neck (esophagus, windpipe, jugular vein, carotid artery) from throat side; spinal cord should never be damaged during slaughter till the animal has totally died,

Camels cannot be done with Dabiha (Zabiha), Dabiha on camels make them haraam (forbidden) and vice versa, Camels are done with Nahr, a sharp knife or spearhead is used to puncture the artery in the lower neck while the animal is facing Qibla (Ka’ba, Makka),

Any further cut or damage to animals should not be done until they are totally dead by natural blood loss; blood flow should naturally stop before any other action,

Skinning or severing the head or any other action can be done only after that the animal becomes totally dead,

Meat should be divided into three parts, only one part can be used for personal consumption, the second part should be reserved for relatives, neighbors, believers etc, the whole third part should be given as charity to poor,

The person who sacrifices should eat at least a little bit from the sacrificed meat.

Above are just a brief information, detail could be had from reliable sources.

O Allah! Salutations be upon Prophet Mohammed and upon Family of Prophet Mohammed.

Thursday 2 August 2018

Good and Virtues according to Shia Islam

Topic 48:

This list is just a brief overlook and a brief list.

  1. Monotheism, worship One True God without any form of idolatry
  2. Loving Islamic personalities, specially Prophet Mohammed and His Family
  3. Contemplation, on various issues, subjects and sciences
  4. Truth
  5. Education acquisition and promotion
  6. Prudence
  7. Observing Justice
  8. Abiding  by the laws of the land
  9. Mercy
  10. Piety
  11. Forgiveness
  12. Remembrance of one's evident death
  13. Modesty
  14. Charity
  15. Sanitation and Hygiene
  16. Nutrition
  17. Moderate Non-Vegetarianism, but only Halaal or Kosher
  18. Fitness and Exercise
  19. Grooming
  20. Prophylaxis and Medication
  21. Rest and Sleep
  22. Marriage, both permanent and temporary
  23. Romance & Sexual intercourse, but only legal
  24. Having children through Marriage
  25. Circumcision
  26. Upbringing Children
  27. Contraception & Family Planning
  28. Guardianship of Orphans
  29. Care for parents, grand-parents etc
  30. Maintaining ties with relatives
  31. Respecting elders and aged ones
  32. Respecting priests of all religions
  33. Care for neighbors, relatives, friends and people
  34. Honoring and entertaining guests via Halaal mode
  35. Taking unsolicited part in others’ sorrows
  36. Maintaining secrecy about others’ short-comings
  37. Advising others, but with good intention
  38. Prohibiting others from evils and crimes, but in the best possible manner
  39. Accepting and taking part in other's legal celebrations etc when invited
  40. Modest Celebrations & Parties
  41. Giving modest gifts with good and legal intentions at legal celebrations
  42. Festivals, where Islamic fundamentals are not compromised
  43. Hobby, legal types
  44. Friendship, legal format
  45. Business and Earnings, legal activities
  46. Tourism, without any Haraam activities
  47. Sports, without any gambling
  48. Keeping valid pets and caring 
  49. Tree Plantation, promotion of forestation and protection of animals
  50. Divorce, when no other option is available

O Allah! Salutations be upon Prophet Mohammed and upon Family of Prophet Mohammed.

Friday 27 July 2018

Evils and Vices according to Shia Islam

Topic 47:

This list is just a brief overlook and a brief list. Referring Holy Qur’an, authentic books and scholarly articles for any further information is hereby proposed. Evils/Vices are not arranged in manner of their decreasing magnitudes.

  1. Polytheism (associating partners with One True God) 
  2. Idolatry (worshiping idols and images) 
  3. Manufacturing idols to be sold for idolatry 
  4. Witchcrafts, Magic etc (though these subject are bogus, their practice is still evil and vice) 
  5. Astrology, Palmistry etc (though these subject are bogus, their practice is still evil and vice) 
  6. Disclosing one’s sins, evils and vices to others (Aimmah or Imams are reported to have said: never disclose your bad deeds to others, keep it between yourself and God) 
  7. Terrorism (in modern era, Terrorism is being practiced in the name of Jihad, in Shia Islam Jihad currently stands suspended, and thus it is forbidden for Shia Muslims to engage in pseudo jihad) 
  8. Genocide 
  9. Murder 
  10. Suicide 
  11. Female Infanticide 
  12. Theft 
  13. Human Trafficking 
  14. Kidnapping 
  15. Usurpation 
  16. Rape 
  17. Molestation 
  18. Paedophilia (sexual activities with children)
  19. Necrophilia (sexual activities with dead) 
  20. Bribery 
  21. Cheating 
  22. Blackmailing 
  23. Cruelty 
  24. Abortion (unless it causes severe danger to woman, get more details from scholarly pages, by the way Shia Islam allows use of contraceptives) 
  25. Deserting Wives, Children, Parents, Grandparents etc 
  26. Incest 
  27. Prostitution 
  28. Adultery 
  29. Fornication (unmarried person having sexual intercourse, by the way Shia Islam allows temporary marriage) 
  30. Homosexuality 
  31. Sex-change surgeries 
  32. Polygyny (having more than one husband at a time) 
  33. Nudity 
  34. Illiteracy 
  35. Alcoholism 
  36. Manufacturing Alcohol 
  37. Drug Addiction 
  38. Gambling 
  39. Lie 
  40. Begging 
  41. Cremation etc (any mode except burial or sea burial when required) 
  42. Permanent Sterilization 
  43. Adoption (such where adopted child becomes legal heir or replaces biological father's name, however, Shia Islam promotes guardianship of such child)
  44. Replacing biological father's name with someone else's name (using husband's name is different and valid issue)
  45. Uncleanliness 
  46. Anti-prophylaxis Attitude (ie: some people are against Polio Vaccines, Shia Islam promotes vaccinations against diseases and rejects stupid attitudes) 
  47. Maintaining close proximity with unrelated person of opposite sex 
  48. Extravagance 
  49. Using gold or silver crockery 
  50. Men wearing gold or silk 
  51. Being Miser 
  52. Neglecting neighborly or friendly needs (although being capable) 
  53. Keeping inhospitable attitude towards guests 
  54. Back-Biting 
  55. Breaching Trust 
  56. Slangs 
  57. Greed 
  58. Gluttony 
  59. Being sloth 
  60. Jealousy 
  61. Intact Foreskin 
  62. Menstrual Sexual Intercourse 
  63. Post-Partum Sexual Intercourse 
  64. Masturbation (it is a lesser vice if compared to adultery etc, Shia Islam allows temporary marriage. Aimmah (Imams) are reported to have said: if you are must to choose between two evils then choose the lesser evil)
  65. Replacing biological father's name
  66. Celibacy 
  67. Shaving beard and moustache using razor blades (however trimming is allowed even to stubble size)
  68. Hunting for fun or sports 
  69. Hardcore Non-vegetarianism 
  70. Eating un-hooved animals 
  71. Eating blood, spleen, testicles, penis etc (refer to reliable scholarly works) 
  72. Eating Pigs 
  73. Eating Birds which have talons 
  74. Eating fishes which do not have scales 
  75. Eating naturally dead meat 
  76. Eating meat offered to idols 
  77. Eating meat other than Halal or Kosher 
  78. Slaughtering pregnant animals 
  79. Slaughtering animals who have young babies 
  80. Keeping Dog or Pig inside home 
  81. Domesticating Pigs 

O Allah! Salutations be upon Prophet Mohammed and upon Family of Prophet Mohammed.

Friday 2 March 2018

Shia Islam, Hajr e Aswad (The Black Stone) and Umar Khattab

Topic 46:

As you may be knowing, Hajr e Aswad (The Black Stone) is embedded on corner wall of the Holy Ka’aba near its door. Muslims regardless of being Shia or Sunni kiss the Hajr e Aswad when they circumbulate (Tawaaf) Holy Ka’ba after every circuit, if they can’t manage to kiss the Hajr e Aswad because of overcrowding, they at least make a kissing gesture with their hands.

Muslims differ on the status which Hajr e Aswad owns in the Islamic World. Shia opinion is also quiet aloof from Sunni stand on this issue. Shia many a times are accused as polytheists (Mushrik) by some Sunni, who consider themselves as very factual believers, that is they have reasons for whatever they do, while they think Shia have invalid practices.

Whenever it comes to the issue of Hajr e Aswad, Sunni would instantly talk about the declaration of Umar Khattab, the second Sunni Caliph. Though, Umar Khattab is not a divine authority in Sunni, unlike Imam Ali Murtada who is a divine authority in Shia Islam, yet Sunni project Umar Khattab as a reformist; but, with what authority, political or divine?

In Shia Islam, Imam Ali Murtada has every right to clarify and declare something valid or invalid in Islam, as in Shia Islam, Imam Ali Murtada is a divinely appointed leader with all authority to do so, Shia can’t question him. But in Sunni, since Umar Khattab is not a divinely appointed leader rather is a political head appointed by the Last-will of previous Caliph Abu Bakr, who too was elected, but never divinely appointed. So if divinely appointed Imam Ali Murtada says something, it becomes a religion for Shia, but can sayings of political head Umar Khattab become part of religion in Sunni?

So, opinions of Umar Khattab are worth to be questioned even in Sunni faith, then how can his opinions represent Islamic standpoints? This is where the issue of status of Hajr e Aswad (The Black Stone) arises. Many Sunni project Umar Khattab as reformist, even on issue of Hajr e Aswad. It is reported in Sunni Hadith that Umar Khattab during circumbulation (Tawaaf) of Holy Ka’aba came towards Hajr e Aswad, and before kissing clarified his stand, by saying: O Hajr e Aswad, you are just a stone, you can neither benefit nor harm, had I not seen Prophet Mohammed himself kissing you, I wouldn’t have kissed you.

Here, Sunni proudly clarify their two standpoints, first is that Hajr e Aswad is just a stone, which can’t benefit or harm anyone, second they say, the only reason Hajr e Aswad is to be kissed is solely because Prophet Mohammed had kissed it too. The thing which becomes clear here is that Umar Khattab or Sunni never do anything without any reason, they need solid reasons for them to do something as part of religion. Umar Khattab or Sunni need reason to kiss Hajr e Aswad, and their only reason is that Prophet Mohammed too kissed it.

Now, let us come to the action of Prophet Mohammed. If we go by Sunni logic, Umar Khattab or Sunni themselves have reason to kiss the stone; else Umar Khattab or Sunni wouldn’t have kissed it. So from action of Umar Khattab it could be said that, it is necessary to have a reason to do something, Umar Khattab does something Umar Khattab has reason! Concluding this, having reason is part of Islam.

Let analyze it further, Prophet Mohammed is better in all aspect than Umar Khattab, and if Umar Khattab is so sensitive that he never does anything foolishly and he needs a proper reason to do anything in religion, then Prophet Mohammed too would be knowing this requirement, and Prophet Mohammed too wouldn’t do anything foolishly.

Prophet Mohammed kissed Hajr e Aswad (The Black Stone), this is a fact. Shia Islam deny Umar Khattab’s whims and fancies that Hajr e Aswad is merely a normal stone with no powers in it, the reason Shia deny Umar’s stand is that because Prophet Mohammed had kissed it, it is really a disbelief (Kufr) to think that Prophet Mohammed had simply out of no valid reason kissed a normal stone which had no power to harm or benefit anyone.

If Umar Khattab doesn’t do anything without a reason, can anyone being a Muslim believe that Prophet Mohammed did things without any valid reasons? Umar Khattab himself says that for him the stone had no power to profit or harm someone, so can any Sunni on behalf of Umar Khattab explain to Shia as to why Prophet Mohammed kissed Hajr Aswad? Also can any Sunni on behalf of Umar Khattab explain to Shia as to why if Prophet Mohammed definitely had some undeclared reasons to kiss Hajr e Aswad, then how can Umar Khattab say those words which he had said?

Now, coming to Shia stand, Hajr e Aswad is a sign of God, and ought to be respected, it has spiritual powers too, no Shia ever says that it has spiritual power on its own accord, rather Shia believes that God has exalted the stone and God has put up spiritual powers in that stone, so there is no reason to put up pseudo verdicts of polytheism upon Shia.

Shia Islam states that Hajr e Aswad has such power that if a prophet or any divinely appointed leader approaches it, it will speak, greet and testify the authority. Shia have ahaadith (Hadiths) that Hajr e Aswad testified with voice the prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammed. Similarly, when any of the 12 Imam (Divinely appointed leader) approaches it with question, then too it will testify the divine authority bestowed upon the said Imam.

Shia ahaadith testify that when an issue started up as to who was to be the fourth Imam after the third Imam Husain, some miscreants declared that the fourth Imam must be the surviving son of first Imam Ali Murtada instead of Imam Zainul Aabideen, the son of third Imam Husain. These miscreants named Mohammed Hanafiya, the half-brother of third Imam Husain to be the fourth Imam. Mohammed Hanafiya denied their claim and remained loyal to real fourth Imam Zainul Aabideen, yet confusion prevailed among people. This prompted fourth Imam Zainul Abideen to ask people to gather in front of Hajr e Aswad, while Mohammed Hanafiya too stood beside fourth Imam Zainul Abideen.

There Fourth Imam Zainul Aabideen, asked his loyal half-brother Mohammed Hanafiya, who was victim of the propaganda to send salutation (As salam Alaykum/ Peace Be upon you) upon Hajr e Aswad, which he did, since, he was not the real Imam, Hajr e Aswad remained silent, fourth Imam Zainul Aabideen asked people to bear the coming miracle when he himself send the same salutation upon Hajr e Aswad, it miraculously spoke in voice and returned the proper greeting, when fourth Imam Zainul Aabideen questioned the Hajr e Aswad as to who the questioner is, it spoke and confirmed that the questioner is Imam (Divinely Appointed Leader) of the time. Thus, the matter was settled. Thus, for Shia, Hajr e Aswad is not simple stone with no powers in it, rather it is mean to confirm the true divinely appointed leader.

In conclusion, it must be said, Hajr e Aswad is a spiritual stone. Hajr Aswad affirms the Divinely appointed Leader that too in voice. Prophet Mohammed kissed it with valid reason. Umar Khattab didn’t knew or didn’t wanted to confirm the reason as to why Prophet Mohammed kissed it. This is a request to Sunni, that next time instead of professing words of Umar Khattab, and instead of thinking about why Umar Khattab kissed Hajr e Aswad, try to think about why would Prophet Mohammed kiss a normal stone out of no valid reasons? And when you get two reasons for kissing Hajr e Aswad, accept only the Prophet Mohammed's reason.

O Allah! Salutations be upon Prophet Mohammed and upon Family of Prophet Mohammed.

Friday 25 August 2017

Shia Islam ke Aqaaid aur Aamaal (Urdu)

Topic 45:

Deen ke Usul, Aqaaid, Buniyaad yaane Usul e Deen, ye taadaad me paanch hae:

In English

1) Tauhiid (Allah ko Ek maanna)
2) Adaalat (Allah ke tamaam nizaam ki buniyaad Adl ko maanna)
3) Nubuwat (Tamaam Nabiyou yaane Ambiyaa ko maanna)
4) Imaamat (Allah ke muqqarrar karda tamaam Imaamou yaane Aimmaah ko maanna)
5) Qayaamat (Qayaamat ke din ko haq maanna)

Deen ke Aamaal, Shaakhe yaane Furu e Deen, ye taadaad me das hae:

1) Salaat (Namaaz)
2) Sawm (Roza)
3) Zakaat (Gharibo ka hissa)
4) Khums (Paanchwa hisaa)
5) Hajj (Makka ka safar)
6) Jihaad (Jaddo-jehd)
7) Amr bil Maaruf (Nek aamaal ki daawat)
8) Nahi anil Munkar (Buure aamaal se ikhtelaaf)
9) Tawalla (Sayyedna Mohammed aur unke Ahle Bait se mohabbat/ muwaddat rakhna)
10) Tabarra (Sayyedna Mohammed ke dushmanou aur unke Ahle Bait ke dushmanou se duri aur bezaari rakhna)

Ae Allah! Sayyedna Mohammed aur unke Ahle Bait par Salaato Salaam.

Friday 10 March 2017

Caliphate of Imam Ali Murtada

Topic 44: 

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Ali Murtada was the closest male blood relative of Prophet Mohammed, he was son of Abu Talib, who was the guardian uncle to the orphan Prophet Mohammed. Abu Talib, considered his orphan nephew Prophet Mohammed dearer than his own children. Prophet Mohammed was about 30 years old when Ali Murtada was born to Abu Talib. Ali Murtada is the only person who was born inside Holy Ka’ba. Ali Murtada didn’t open his eyes, until Prophet Mohammed came to see the baby; there in the arms of Prophet Mohammed, Ali opened his eyes for the first time. Likewise, he didn’t also suckle his mother, but when Prophet Mohammed put his saliva in mouth of baby Ali, he took it as first food for himself.

Ali Murtada was like adopted son of Prophet Mohammed and his wife Lady Khadija. Ali Murtada grew under the holy care and love of Prophet Mohammed. This Holy family had always stayed away from idolatry, polytheism and paganism. Ali Murtada was 10 years old when Prophet Mohammed announced his mission. Ali Murtada became the first male to testify for Prophet Mohammed. Initially, God asked Prophet Mohammed to propagate Islam within close clan (Hashmites), Prophet Mohammed arranged a banquet for his clan (Hashmites) and invited them, there he announced his mission. Ali Murtada, a 10 years old boy was first to raise slogan of confirmation for Prophet Mohammed. There exactly Prophet Mohammed had declared that: Ali was his vice-regent. This event is remembered as the event of Dhul-Ashira.

Ali Murtada, always stood by Prophet Mohammed. He underwent hardship of social boycott which the Makkan pagans had imposed upon them. After, death of Abu Talib, when Prophet Mohammed’s life was in open danger, and he was divinely commanded to migrate to Madina, it was Ali Murtada who slept on bed of Prophet Mohammed to disguise Makkan pagans who wanted to kill Prophet Mohamed that night. After migration Imam Ali joined Prophet Mohammed in Madina. He proved himself as champion and hero of Islam in battles of Badr, Uhad, Trench, Khaibar, Hunain etc. When so called great companions ran away from battle-fields, it was Ali Murtada who always stood by Prophet Mohammed. Victory at Khaibar was possible only because of Ali. At event of Tabuk, when Ali was left behind at Madina, Prophet Mohammed had declared to him that: Oh Ali! You are to me as Aaron (Haarun) was to Moses (Musa).

In all these events, the hypocrite companions always envied Ali Murtada. They tried every possible means to degrade Ali, but where themselves degraded all the time. When Prophet Mohammed married away his only biological daughter Fatima Zahra with Ali Murtada, the jealousy in hearts of hypocrite companions reached unimaginable limits. Finally, when Prophet Mohammed announced Ali Murtada’s authority upon people after him, and made Ali Murtada the chief of Muslims at the event of Ghadeer, and took everyone’s allegiance in favour of Ali, the truthful companion’s joy knew no bounds while hypocrite companion’s hearts went underwent burning.

Prophet Mohammed knew he was about to leave this world and had arranged properly for smooth transition of authority to Ali after him by sending Abu Bakr and Umar away from Madina on war campaign that too under leadership of 19 year old general Osama s/o Zaid, so that they adapt to live under leader younger than them. Before they left, Prophet Mohammed on his death bed had asked to let him dictate his will too, it was Umar who knew that the will would go in favour of Ali and convinced people to let Prophet Mohammed rest and make no will, since Holy Qur’an was enough for them after him. Instead of marching forward on campaign they actually halted just outside Madina and refused to advance. They too knew it very well, what they desired. When Prophet Mohammed passed away Umar was first to return, he prohibited people to declare that Prophet Mohammed was no more, since, he knew Abu Bakr was on his way. By the time Abu Bakr came to Madina, Ansaars (Natives of Madina) had started chaos for leadership. In all these, faithful companions remained true to Ali Murtada.

Ali Murtada, on preventive advises from Prophet Mohammed regarding future adopted silence. Fatima Zahra, daughter of Prophet Mohammed was brutally attacked in course of which she too died at young age of around 20, her personal properties too were snatched away by Abu Bakr on pretext that those were state properties. Caliphate kept changing from Abu Bakr to Umar; and from Umar to Uthman. Armies were sent out for political expansion under the pretext of propagation of Islam. Ali Murtada who was the gladiator of Islam in all the battles till then, didn’t take part in any of the battles fought during the era of three Caliphs.

When Uthman was murdered, people came to Ali Murtada and offered him Caliphate. This time Ali Murtada reminded them their previous conditions which they had put in front of him, and how he had rejected those terms and thus chose not to become caliph, earlier. People still wanted Ali Murtada to become Caliph, so Ali Murtada put forth his conditions in front of them. That, he will follow Holy Qur’an, he will follow conventions of Prophet Mohammed but would neither follow conventions of previous caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman, nor would work as per advises of people, but would use his personal intellect. People agreed and started to pay allegiance! This is how Caliphate of Ali Murtada started. Ali Murtada had always been the first spiritual leader (Imam) after Prophet Mohammed for Shia, with his caliphate he also became the fourth Caliph of Sunni.

There were other people like Zubair s/o Awwam and Talha s/o Obaidullah who too aspired to become caliph, Uthman’s murder opened the doors of opportunities for such people. Along with Uthman and Ali Murtada, both Zubair and Talha were also mentioned in Umar’s will from among whom next Caliph after Umar was to be chosen. Ali Murtada had rejected absurd conditions which Uthman had accepted and was made Caliph, now, after Uthman’s murder both Zubair and Talha considered themselves appropriate for caliphate, they even agreed to abide by policies of Abu Bakr and Uthman, which Ali Murtada never agreed to. Zubair was even son in law of 1st caliph Abu Bakr.

Both Zubair and Talha counseled and conspired against Ali Murtada. Zubair had earlier been supporter of Ali Murtada, but when Umar had named him too in his will, he changed his stand since then. They knew it well that they alone would make no difference. Aisha, the widow of Prophet Mohammed and daughter of 1st caliph Abu Bakr, was totally against the nepotism of Uthman during his caliphate and had been his top critic. When Uthman was murdered, Aisha was on pilgrimage to Makka and received the news on her way back. Zubair met Aisha on her way back to Madina. Zubair was Aisha’s brother in law, thus Aisha wanted Zubair to become next caliph. Aisha, needed strong reasons to stand against Ali Murtada.

Mauwiya, the Uthman’s cousin and his governor to Syria, whom Uthman had granted total autonomy from central caliphate, ruled Syria as king. Mauwiya was the son of Abu Sufyan, the Pagan Makkan leader and staunchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed, they both father and son adopted Islam outwardly at the event of conquest of Makka, now, Mauwiya once the staunch enemy of Islam, was appointed as trustee of Islam. Since, he had autonomy of power; he too aspired to become Caliph, not just of Syria but of all Islamic territory.

Marwan, the son in law of Uthman, the person who was exterminated by none other but Prophet Mohammed himself, he too wanted to succeed his father in law as caliph. They all came together formed a pact to rise against Ali Murtada. They wanted to use the pretext of murder of Uthman as sound reason for their actions. They started to blame Ali Murtada directly for murder of Uthman, if not directly, claimed he was passive towards the murderers who they claimed were in Ali Murtada’s men.

Ali Murtada, clearly proved that he was neither behind the murder of Uthman, nor in favour of Uthmans selfish and corrupt rule. Ali Murtada also reminded Aisha that she had no legal right to seek revenge, since Uthman was not from her clan, and asked her to stay away from matter, but Aisha’s real agenda was to see Zubair as Caliph, thus they remained adamant.

Mauwiya, tried to get another companion of Prophet Mohammed by name of Sa’ad s/o Abi Waqas on their side, he always had had rough relations with Ali Murtada, he was also one of option for caliph in Umar’s will. It is worth noting, that though Sa’ad had rough relations with Ali Murtada, he declined to oppose Ali so as to help Mauwiya. He also rejected to be part of their gang, and kept himself away from this tumoil.

Ali Murtada, agreed to do justice for the murder of Uthman, and punish his murderer, but that could be possible only when the complainants accept him as caliph, pay him their allegiance and then seek justice from him. Prior to their allegiance, Ali Murtada was not obliged to deal with their matter. Mauwiya, Zubair, Talha, Marwan and Aisha’s real motives were not justice for Uthman, so they never gave their allegiance as for proper procedure for justice. Instead, they increased their propaganda against Ali Murtada, they even blamed 750 staunch supporters of Ali Murtada as murderers of Uthman, Ali Murtada rejected this proposal that 750 men can directly murder a single person and later could be punished for murder, that too with death sentence.

Ali Murtada never wanted bloodshed & civil war inside the city of Madina, thus, Ali Murtada shifted his capital from Madina to Kufa in Iraq, to consolidate Caliphate. Ali Murtada as Caliph deposed Mauwiya from the post of governor of Syria because of his illegal activities. Mauwiya and others gathered an army and sent it towards Iraq to finish of Ali Murtada.

Aisha, the widow of Prophet Mohammed took the command of army, she symbolically sat on camel. Zubair, Talha and Marwan joint Aisha for the attack, while Mauwiya had sent an army to join them too against Ali Murtada, who was none other than a valid caliph of their time. It was clearly reported to wives of Prophet Mohammed by none other than Prophet Mohammed himself about a certain future, where one of his wife will wage war on Ali Murtada, she would be on guilty side, and dogs of Hawab will bark upon her. This prophecy came true when on the journey dogs surrounded the camel on which Aisha was sitting and started to bark, at once Aisha remembered the prophecy, and asked people to take her back. Marwan and Talha, convinced her that the place was not Hawab, when actually it was Hawab, they bought false witnesses to testify too. Yet Aisha forgot about other points of prophecy, that one will wage war on Ali Murtada, and she will be guilty!

Eventually, their army camped nearby present day Basra, Iraq. When Ali Murtada with his men came to confront them, Ali Murtada sent envoys to Aisha, reminded her that it was neither her legal right to seek revenge for Uthman, specifically when they don’t recognize Ali Murtada as Caliph. Ali Murtada also reminded her of prophecy of Prophet Mohammed, she paid no heeds, Ali Murtada also, informed her about the protocols of Prophet Mohammed’s wives as mentioned in Holy Qur’an, and how it was a trespass of those protocols on part of Aisha.

This famous battle came to be known as battle of Camel in Islamic history. It is a propaganda that some culprits incited the wars after midnight, they all had deliberately came from Madina up to Basra for the very reason to avenge blood of Uthman from Ali Murtada. Aisha, sat on Camel and took active part and lead role in the battle. When it became tense, Ali Murtada asked his son Hasan Mujtaba to cut the seat belt of Aisha’s camel, so as to break the morale of their men. Ali Murtada, had adopted Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr after his father’s death, this Mohammed was treated like a son and was very loyal to Ali Murtada, though he was step brother of Aisha. When the seat fell, Mohammed held Aisha while she fell and prevented her from getting hurt, when people raised chaos that Ali Murtada insulted so called mother, this Mohammed confronted them and informed that since he was brother of Aisha, he can touch and hold Aisha, there was no issue of insult (protocol).

This, falling of Aisha, turned the tables of the battle. When Zubair confronted Ali Murtada on the battle field, Ali Murtada reminded him about how Zubair had supported him after death of Prophet Mohammed. He also reminded him how Prophet Mohammed had prophesied to Zubair, that one day he would wage war on Ali Murtada, this melted the heart of Zubair. Zubair felt remorse and declared that he withdrew from the battle, this could have become a great loss, and thus, Talha instantly killed Zubair when he began to retreat, citing he back-stabbed them. Talha was also a contender for post of Caliph, Marwan wanted to remove this obstacle too, there exactly Marwan killed his own this ally Talha. Now, Aisha was captured, Zubair, Talha were dead, it created chaos and Ali Murtada won decisive victory. Ali Murtada however, sent Aisha back to Madina, with all due respect and protocols. Ali Murtada also ordered his men not to collect any spoils of war from losers. Aisha, thereafter never took part in this activities.

Amr s/o A’as who had been staunch enemy of Islam was now a name sake Muslim, he had been the governor of Egypt and was removed from the post by Uthman, now took asylum with Mauwiya in Syria. He too had desired to rule Egypt as independent Caliph. Mauwiya’s motives were not fulfilled; once again he collected his men for another battle. He himself, Marwan and Amr A’as, all three joined hands against Ali Murtada, they marched against Ali Murtada. This time both forces met at present day Mosul in Iraq, the area was called Siffin and the battle which happened here came to be known by Battle of Siffin.

After a lot of convincing, Ali Murtada became sure of their adamant intentions, fierce battles were fought at Siffin. Mauwiya sensed his eminent loss and offered A’as independent governorate of Egypt, if he somehow sows discord among Ali’s men. When Battle was on final phases, Amr A’as came under direct attack of Ali Murtada during the battle and was about to be killed, when he took out all his cloth and stood naked, as he was sure Ali Murtada would never attack a naked men though in battle field. Amr A’as tried another trick, he asked his men to raise copies of Holy Qur’an on spears and shout that: we will decide by Holy Book.

His trick proved successful, Ali Murtada’s army got divided into two factions. One faction wanted to fight and bring end to this problem since talks were already over, but other faction which were not loyal to Ali Murtada but had joined him only to oppose Mauwiya, now wanted to halt the battle when it was about to turn into a victory, Ali Murtada tried to convince them that to continue fighting was best option, yet they were adamant. With broken heart Ali Murtada asked to halt the battle, Mauwiya and Amr breathed a sigh of relief. Both sides now decided to set up arbitration and head to send two men one from each side to decide the terms and settlement.

When Ali Murtada agreed, the faction of his own army which forced Ali Murtada to stop the battle, now accused Ali Murtada of going against Holy Qur’an, they believed arbitration by two men was against Holy Qur’an, Ali Murtada tried to convince them that it was not against Holy Qur’an, and they were the same men who wanted to stop the battle. These men had their own motives, when they found they could not use Ali Murtada to their own advantages, they raised the slogan: Only God can judge, and left the camp with vow to fight both factions soon, they came to be known as Kharjites (those who leave away).

Mauwiya sent Amr A’as as his arbitrator, since he has seen latter’s trickeries in the battles. Ali Murtada selected Maalik Ashtar his loyal companion. Shia men from Ali Murtada’s camp had no issue with Maalik but Non-Shia men in Ali Murtada’s army who didn’t considered Ali to be spiritual leader objected. Ali Murtada as option asked Abdulah s/o Abbas his cousin; he too was rejected by Non-Shia members of Ali’s men. Finally, Ali Murtda asked them to select a member but he should be bold enough. They selected Abu Musa Ashari, a critic of Ali, Ali Murtada objected him but seeing people adamant gave terms which he was to abide by during arbitration.

Now, both Abu Musa Ashari and Amr A’as met. The meeting was held privately without any third person. Amr convinced Abu Musa that both Ali and Mauwiya were troubles and thus both should be removed, and general people should be allowed to choose any other person apart from these two for post of caliph. Abu Musa had been the governor of Kufa during Uthman era too aspired to become caliph. Abu Musa felt that once the caliphate became vacant, he could convince people to make him caliph. Actually, Abu Musa had fallen into the trap of Amr A’as.

When the date for declaration came, people gathered in the mosque. Amr A’as announced that both have found the solution and would declare one by one, Amr A’as asked Abu Musa to announce his decision first as arbitrator from Ali’s side then he would do. Abu Musa Ashari, went up the pulpit and declared that as an arbitrator he removes Ali Murtada from post of caliph just as he removes ring from finger, he symbolically removed a ring, he disposed Mauwiya as well, but he was never Mauwiya’s arbitrator. Amr soon climbed the pulpit and declared his say. He told people since Abu Musa had disposed Ali Murtada, he as arbitrator from Mauwiya’s side would impose Mauwiya to the caliphate. Abu Musa had heated argument with Amr but their judgements had been given.

Ali Murtada had send Abu Musa with term which he was asked not to breach during arbitration, but Abu Musa had broken the terms themselves thus his arbitration stood void. Ali Murtada rejected to accept either the stupidity of Abu Musa or treachery of A’as. Amr A’as was rewarded by Mauwiya with the governorate of Egypt for the chaos he created among Ali Murtada’s men. There were de facto three caliphs now, Mauwiya ruled Syria, Amr ruled Egypt, other part were under Ali Murtada’s control.

Meanwhile, the third forum of Kharjites by then had formed themselves into an army, and declared war on Ali Murtada. These Kharjites claimed to oppose both Ali and Mauwiya but waged war only on Ali Murtada, this itself proves that they too were mere pawns of Mauwiya. They sent army against Ali Murtada at Nehrawan, Iraq. Ali Murtada met them at Nehrawan, fought against them too and amazingly almost all were killed accept five or six who ran away. Ali Murtada’s army lost just few men in this battle. Kharjites now became a sect with their own beliefs, one among those were that people who don’t follow their sect were sinner and must be killed, they started another terrorist front apart from Ummayyad, they killed many people in cold blood.

Ali Murtada as a young man had fought all battle during the time of Prophet Mohammed, after Prophet Mohammed during the era of caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthaman this brave soldier never took part in any battles (conquest of Iran, Syria, Egypt), which shows such conquests were never for sake of propagation of Islam but were merely political expansions. After thirty years when Ali Murtada was an old man, he once again unsheathed his sword at battles of camel, Siffin and Nehrawan, this shows, Ali only fought in those battles which he considered to be for sake of protection of pure Islam. Ali Murtada after all these battle successfully separated true Islam from terrorist brand of Islam.

Ali Murtada couldn’t get enough time to run caliphate smoothly because of all the bloody battles he had to fight, though whatever little time he got, he set up the best administration, law and order of his time. His policies were highlighted even at United Nations, for the solution of Arab world in modern times.

Ali Murtada, lost many of his loyal friends, he lost Ammaar Yaasir, a very trustworthy companion of Prophet Mohammed at battle of Siffin. He lost his adopted son Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr in Egypt, whom Mauwiya had ordered to be killed, chopped and burnt openly. He lost Maalik Ashtar his loyal friend who was poisoned by Mauwiya and A’as at Egypt.

Now, Ali Murtada, seeing people not ready to fight anymore and kept on leaving his army settled at Kufa, Iraq. Kharjites, were adamant to kill Ali Murtada and knew that it was impossible to confront Ali in battle. So, they sent an assassin in disguise, he was asked to hit Ali Murtada with poisoned dripped sword while he was in prostration. It is propaganda that two Kharjites who were sent people to kill Mauwiya and A’as, but they missed killing them, actually they were mere pawns and were bribed by Mauwiya to create a story.

Finally, the Kharjite by name Abdur Rehman Muljim came to Kufa, and on 19th Ramadan of 40 AH (661 AD) stabbed Ali Murtada on back of neck while he was in prayer, in prostration. Ali Murtada, now fatally wounded declared his will. He considered his assassin too in his will, people should not instantly kill him for murder, if he (Ali Murtada) recovered he will do what he deems fit, but if he succumbs then only one stab should be blown upon Muljim, since he too had given Ali a single stab. If after single stab he continues to live he should be allowed to live. Ali also asked people not to tie Muljim in rope nor keep him in hungry in custody.

Ali Murtada passed on the mantle of Imaamat (Divinely appointed leadership) upon his elder son Hasan. Hasan became the second Imam for Shia. Ali Murtada passed away with words: I swear by the Lord of Ka’ba that I triumphed. He became a martyr on 21st Ramadan two days later. Ali Murtada, was well aware of Ummayyads despised activities of digging grave of their opponents and then show disgrace to corpses and therefore like Lady Fatima Zahra, his wife and daughter of Prophet Mohammed, Ali Murtada too willed that he should be buried secretly. Only his two eldest sons Hasan and Husain carried the coffin from Kufa to present day Najaf.

Ali Murtada’s grave remained secret, and only Shia Imams (Aimmaah) knew the specific location of his grave. Times changed Ummayads vanished away, later Abbasids ruled, and during an incident the Sixth Shia Imam Jaa’far Saadiq informed the ruling Abbasid Caliph Haarun Rashid about the grave, who made the first tomb there. Abbasids, were never followers of Ahlul Bait (Family of Prophet Mohammed), but used their names for their own advantages.

When Hasan Mujtaba became the second Imam for Shia as well as fifth Sunni Caliph, Mauwiya continued his evil.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutations be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview