Friday, 26 April 2013

Mut'ah/ Temporary Marriage, legal in both Qur'an and Shia Islam

Mut'ah or Temporary marriage is legal (Halaal) and allowed in both Holy Qur'an [4:24] and Shia Islam. However, Sunni Islam consider it forbidden (Haraam). Shia Islam considers both Nikah (Permanent marriage) and Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) as blessing of God, to save one's self from various sexual sins.

The major difference between Nikah (Permanent marriage) and Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) is that Mut'ah is contracted for a particular period. There is no divorce (Talaaq) in Mut'ah, when the period end the contract of Mut'ah also ends.

All scholars of both Shia and Sunni branches of Islam agree to the fact that Mut'ah was practised during Prophet Mohammed's time, rather Prophet Mohammed himself allowed his companions to contract Mut'ah, specifically while they undertook voyage/ journey. Mut'ah was practised even prior to advent of Prophet Mohammed among Arabs, but their concepts were unregulated and rude.

Islam forbids fornication, adultery and other various sexual sins. On other hand, Islam takes care about carnal desires and thus provide for concept of marriage. Islam requires its followers to refrain from both sexual sins as well as celibacy. Prophet Mohammed declared, "That to marry is my custom and the one who avoids my custom is not from among my followers". Prophet Mohammed is also reported to have declared that marriage should be made so easy that task of fornication/ adultery (Zinaa) should become tiresome in comparison to it. Mut'ah no doubt is easiest marriage.

Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) like Nikah (Permanent marriage) is contracted by 'Aqd/ marriage fomula' along with 'Mehr/Payment made to bride', thus there is no issue left to call it illegal.

Nikah (Pemanent marriage) requires husband to provide wife with food, clothing, housing, medical aid, sexual satisfaction etc. Nikah apart from safeguarding from sexual sins provides base to make family and have babies. Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) aims more towards safeguarding from sexual sins in critical periods where possibility to commit sexual sins become very high, like in: journey, menstruation, postpartum time, health issues, moments when possibility to commit sexual sins become very high and unavoidable. Remember, Prophet Mohammed said, "make marriage so easy that task of fornication/ adultery (Zinaa) should become very tiresome in comparison to it". 

Although, sole aim of Mut'ah is to safeguard one's self from sexual sins; pregnancy from Mut'ah is considered legal in Shia Islam, and just like in Nikah; title of child from Mut'ah also falls upon child’s father.

Since, sole aim of Mut'ah is to safeguard against sexual sins, it has no specified limits for time, and thus Mut'ah could be for little time (as some minutes, hours, days, weeks, months) up to several years. A very long period ie: many years or life-time turns Mut'ah into Nikah.

With regards to other duties of husband like providing food, clothing, housing, medical aid, sexual satisfaction etc to wife like in case of Nikah, Mut'ah also allows the spouses the same, provided those clauses are mentioned in the contract of Mut'ah. Else, Mut'ah don't obligate husband to provide for wives. To be specific, Mut'ah is such a contract where future spouses specify clause by clause each duty/ obligation, where as in Nikah everything is standard. Mutah allows would be spouses provide clauses in contract with regards to: to have sexual relations, abstain from any sexual relations, inherit, not to inherit, provide food, clothing, housing, medical aid etc or not to provide. Thus, Mut'ah is a custom made contract.

Nowadays, Muslims to marry enter in engagement before that; to know each other better, they talk, dine, travel with each other but in opinion of Islam such acts are forbidden (Haraam) and amount to sexual sins. Current trends are no excuse! Thus for Shia Muslims who allow Mut'ah, Mut'ah is a good agent to know each other before marriage when they start their family with Nikah (permanent marriage). No reason to accuse Mut'ah with premarital sex, since Mut'ah allows it to be contracted with terms that no sexual relations would be made between couple.

Mut'ah is perfect solution to enter into the state of Mehram (relative male/ female), since, Islam forbids Muslims to freely intermingle with Non-Mahram (non-Relative), and women are required to maintain Hijab (Cover body in front of unrelated men).

Mut’ah differs itself from Nikaah on several other aspects as well, since its core motives are to safeguard society against sexual sins, simplify marriage to satisfy carnal desires through rightful means and practise chastity. Unlike Nikah, Mut’ah doesn’t have divorce, thus when the term ends the Mut’ah is over. Since, there is no divorce in it; there is also no concept of Halaala (marrying another man after divorce and getting divorce from latter to re-marry previous husband). One more reason for this is that Mut’ah can’t be re-adjusted with new terms and condition while the contract is working. Thus, if the woman marries the same man once again they have just to re-enter a new contract either through Mut’ah or Nikah, there is no condition of Halalaa or Iddat (waiting period before remarriage).

However, in case the spouses don’t want to re-marry each other, and if the woman is about to marry another man, she has to observe iddat (waiting period before re-marriage). The iddat of Mut’ah as stated in one narration of 5th Imam Mohammed Baqir and yet another narration of 8th Imam Ali Reda is 2 months (2 menstrual cycles). However, if the husband dies the waiting period is similar to such case in Nikah, which is 4 months and 10 days (calendar period); this too is contextual from the narration of 5th Imam Mohammed Baqir.

If arguments are raised upon Mut'ah, about lack of family values since it is time bound, then although Nikah (Permanent marriage) is permanent but is never free from possibility of divorce (Talaq). In Mut'ah however, it lacks the process of divorce (Talaq) since it ends with the completion of term/ period. Another accusation raised against Mut'ah is that spouses don't inherit from each other; thus it amount to prostitution. Mut'ah allows spouses to inherit from each other provided that they have made it a clause in the contract, thus to accuse Mut'ah as prostitution is a blatant lie. One reason why Mut’ah is not prostitution is because Mut’ah could not be done with prostitutes, and woman needs to observe iddat to marry another person. Mut’ah could not be done with un-marriageable person (sister, brother etc). Mut’ah could be done with either Muslim or Ahlul Kitab (Christian and Jews) in case of men, and only with Muslims in case of women. Men can have any number of Mut’ah in addition to maximum four Nikah wives, provided each and every contract is respected, where as women can have just one husband at a time just like in Nikah.

A society which practises Mut'ah, in that society fornication, adultery, prostitution and various other 'Zinaa' along with other sexual crimes find them difficult to survive. In that society, people are not sexually starved, rather sexually satisfied, and acquire high level Islamic chastity. Prophet Mohammed asked his followers to keep marriage easy in comparison to fornication/ adultery (Zinaa). Those who forbade Mut'ah on themselves have done nothing but opened the doors of Zinaa on themselves.

All Shia and Sunni agree to the fact that Mut'ah was legal, but Sunni now consider Mut'ah forbidden (Haraam) on basis of several hadith (Prophet's narration) from Sahih Bukhari, that Mut'ah became forbidden (Haraam) during siege of Khaybar. Shia consider Sahih Bukhari as unreliable book. Verse of Qur'an could not be negated by a hadith which involve several people in chain of narration. Moreover, other hadith nullifies the claim of the above hadith.

The person who forbade (Haraam) Mut’ah out of no valid reason and having no authority to do so was Umar s/o Khattab the second caliph. Umar Khattab forbade both Mut’ah marriage and also Mut’ah of Hajj (Hajj Ta’Mattu) that is break between Umra (lesser pilgrimage) and Hajj (greater pilgrimage), forbidding any is inconvenience. Umar Khattab’s famous sermon is recorded in Sunni Hadith book ‘Musnad Ahmed ibn Hanbal’; he declared that if he found anybody doing any of the two things, he would severely punish that person. 1st Shia Imam Ali son of Abu Talib when he became fourth caliph; he reversed the order of Umar, and thus once again it became legal for those who considered it forbidden on orders of Umar.

Sunni Imam Abu Hanifa who was also student of 6th Shia Imam Ja’far Sadiq once asked Imam Ja’far Sadiq that: isn’t Mut’ah forbidden (Haraam)? Imam Ja’far Sadiq replied by asking whether he (Abu Hanifa) hadn’t read 24th verse of Surah Nisa’a, which allowed Mut’ah? Imam Ja’far asked him: O Abu Hanifa which sin is greater Murder of Adultery? Abu Hanifa replied: Murder! Imam Ja’far re-questioned him: then why does Murder require two eye witnesses to convict the accused while Adultery requires four eye witnesses to convict the accused? When Abu Hanifa remained silent, Imam Ja’far Sadiq informed him that God allowed Mut’ah to save people from sexual sins, but God knew; people will put barriers to the command of God, and a lot of accused would be made guilty of adultery. Thus, out of mercy He put the condition of four eye witnesses to convict the person accused of adultery, who would definitely be difficult to produce! Imam Ja’far Sadiq in another narration from Hadith book ‘Wasail ush Shia’ asks faithful men and women to do Mut’ah at least once in life time.

Following Ayat (verse) of Holy Qur'an legalise Mut'ah (Temporary marriage): Holy Qur'an, Surah Nisaa (Chapter 4), Ayat (Verse 24)

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُم 
وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا  

Translation: And married women except prisoners of war are forbidden for you by God, and legalized for you are beyond those, that you seek with your wealth for marriage and not immorality, so do temporary marriage (Mut'ah) with them, give them payment as obligated, and no blame is on you that you agree upon after the obligation, for sure God is Knowing and Wise.

The word Mut'ah has although several meanings but when it is used in context of marriage it means temporary marriage whose aim is to receive pleasure through legal means and avoid sexual sins. 'M-T' the root letters imply pleasure; Mut'ah and Istamta both signify temporary marriage in this context.

Wa/وَ (and) almuhsanaatu/الْمُحْصَنَاتُ (the secured, ie: already married) min/مِنَ (among) an-nisaa'i/النِّسَاءِ (women) illa/إِلَّا (except) maa/مَا (from) malakat/مَلَكَتْ (acquire) aemanukum/أَيْمَانُكُمْ (on right), kitaab/كِتَابَ (book) Allahi/اللَّهِ (of God) alaykum/عَلَيْكُم (on you) wa/وَ (and) uhilla/أُحِلَّ (legal) lakum/ لَكُمْ (on you) maa/مَا (from) wa/وَ (and) raa'a/رَاءَ (beyond) zalikum/ذَٰلِكُمْ (those) an/أَنْ (that) tabtaghu/تَبْتَغُوا (you seek) biamwaalikum/بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ (with your wealth) muhsinina/مُحْصِنِينَ (secure, ie: marry), ghaira/غَيْرَ (not) musafihina/مُسَافِحِينَ (immorality), fam/فَمَا (so) astamta'tum/اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ (do mut'ah/ temporary marriage) bihi/بِهِ (from) minhunna/مِنْهُنَّ (them) faatu/فَآتُو (you give) hunna/هُنَّ (them) ujura/أُجُورَ (payment) hunna/هُنَّ (them) faridah/فَرِيضَةً (obligation), wa/وَ (and) laa/لَا  (no) junaaha/جُنَاحَ (blame) alaykum/عَلَيْكُمْ (on you) fimaa/فِيمَا (with) taraadaetum/تَرَاضَيْتُمْ (you agree) bihi/بِهِ (by) min/مِنْ (from) ba'd/بَعْدِ (after) ilfaridah/الْفَرِيضَةِ (obligation), inn/إِنَّ (sure) Allaha/اللَّهَ (God) kaana/كَانَ (is) Aliman/عَلِيمًا (Knowing) Hakimaa/حَكِيمًا (Wise).

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Saturday, 13 April 2013

Martyrdom of Fatima Zahra; Prophet’s daughter!

Prophet Mohammed’s daughter Fatima Zahra was murdered in just ninety days after Prophet Mohammed was martyred with slow poison. Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Prophet Mohammed was in her prime youth when hardship befell her. She was mercilessly assaulted, her ribs got fractured; she miscarried her baby boy ‘Mohsin’.

Prophet Mohammed had already prophesied to Fatima Zahra that she would meet him as earliest, once he leaves this world. The prophecy came true Prophet Mohammed secluded from this world on 28th Safar 11 AH due to slow poison and just ninety days later on 3rd Jamad Al Aakhir 11 AH his beloved and only daughter was mercilessly assaulted causing her grievous injuries, fracturing her ribs and miscarriage of her baby boy ‘Mohsin’, which led to her martyrdom.

After Prophet Mohammed, his cousin and son in law’s right as declared by him at event of Ghadeer as his legal heir were nullified, and Abu Bakr was made first caliph at a private meeting at Saqifa. Numerous pious companions of Prophet Mohammed; namely, Salman, Abu Darr, Bilal, Miqdaad, Huzaifa, Ammar, Abu Ayyub, Jabir etc staunchly opposed the selection of Abu Bakr and supported Ali’s claim. Some others like Zubair and Abu Sufyan were also seen supporting Ali’s claim to caliphate.

Ali himself declared that caliphate was his legal right and was bestowed on him by none other than Prophet Mohammed himself at event of Ghadeer. Family members of Prophet Mohammed and whole Clan of Hashmite including Abbas, Abdullah etc opposed the Abu Bakr’s selection. Fatima Zahra, daughter of Prophet Mohammed, rarely seen interfering in social matter openly and staunchly opposed Abu Bakr’s selection, she supported the claim of her husband ‘Ali’, as per orders of her father Prophet Mohammed.

Also, when Abu Bakr became caliph he ordered date gardens of Khaybar and Fidak to be snatched away from Fatima Zahra, citing a reason that he had heard from Prophet Mohammed that prophets don’t leave legacy, all they leave is charity. Fatima Zahra along with her husband Ali demanded the return of Fidak and Khaybar’s property back to her, as Prophet Mohammed himself had given it to her as a gift during Prophet Mohammed’s very own lifetime. Ali himself rejected the hearsay of Abu Bakr by citing the verses of Holy Qur’an which itself declared that both Prophet Zakaria and Prophet Dawood (David) had left legacy after them for their heirs. Abu Bakr on advices of Umar Khattab remained adamant and rejected the demand.

Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger and displeasure for Abu Bakr due to his snatching away of her legal property. Fatima Zahra also reminded the famous declaration of Prophet Mohammed, “he who angers Fatima does actually angers me”. Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger on Abu Bakr in front of numerous people, she also declared she will remain angry and displeased with Abu Bakr till her very last moment.

As Ali’s claim to caliphate along with impetus from event of Fidak and Khaybar gardens were gathering momentum Abu Bakr’s coup feared civil war. Thus, to consolidate their position they sent embassies of various people to Ali’s house to acquire allegiance in their favour from him. Ali rejected all those embassies. Ali’s supporters (later known as Shia) were having a meet at Ali’s house, when Abu Bakr’s men arrived they claimed Ali’s house as centre point of possible rivalry, they warned against any such gatherings.

Gathering continued, Abu Bakr’s council feared their rule would face serious problems if the events continued in Ali’s house. Their men gathered at Ali’s house with torches in their hands and demanded either Ali’s allegiance in their favour or his arrest. Umar Khattab, Khalid bin Walid, Umar’s slave: Qunfud and some others were reported to be present. Fatima Zahra denied permission to enter her house and also asked them to leave instantly. Hot argument between Fatima Zahra and them were exchanged, she was warned about dire consequences of putting her house on fire.

As events climaxed her door was finally put on fire, and was pushed so forcefully that Fatima got serious injuries as she was just behind
the door. Her ribs were fractured; she was grievously injured and miscarried her baby boy ‘Mohsin’. She later succumbed to her injuries and passed away on 3rd Jamad Al Akhir 11 AH just ninety day after Prophet Mohammed, hers was age of prime youth.

In her will to Ali, she asked him for her secret burial. She also asked none of those who injured and angered her be allowed to take part in funeral, her funeral be undertaken at night. Ali compiled with her wishes. Only few selected men namely, Salman, Abu Darr etc along with her sons Hasan and Husain took part in funeral. Several dummy graves were also made to keep her grave as secret as possible.

Her grave lies in graveyard of Jannatul Baqi in Madina. Her orphans included Hasan, Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum, grand-childrens of Prophet Mohammed, who were later assaulted and mercilessly murdered in event of Karbala after fifty years. The saddest part is that these criminals were so called muslims, actually hypocrites!

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Friday, 5 April 2013

Twelve Imam (Aimmah) of Shia Islam

Belief in Twelve Imam (Aimmah) forms a part of Principles/ Beliefs/ Root/ Tenets of Faith ( Usul Deen). Prophet Mohammed had declared that there will follow a series of twelve vice-regent of his, they would be official spokespersons of Islam. Final authority of Islam on Earth. Their span would continue up to the day of Resurrection, and Islam will remain pure under their guidance. They would be caliphs of God on Earth, only they would interpret the canon of Islam; and the Holy Qur'an. All Twelve Imams are immaculate and infallible, thus their can be no possibility for errors in Islamic interpretation and Islam will remain uncontaminated from errors.

Prophet Mohammed had clearly announced that he is leaving two weighty things (Saqalain) as his legacy; the Holy Qur'an and his blood relatives (Itrat), if people remain bonded with them, people will never go astray. Prophet Mohammed had clearly announced Ali s/o Abu Talib, his cousin and son in law as his first legal heir to lead Islam at event of Ghadeer, just after which Islam was declared a complete religion.

Shia, thus take Ali son of Abu talib as first Imam, and the series goes up to twelfth Imam, which is as follow:

1st Imam Ali Murtada 
Son of Prophet's uncle Abu Talib, Imam Ali is Prophet Mohammed's cousin brother as well as his son in law

2nd Imam Hasan Mujtaba 

Son of First Imam Ali, Eldest Grandson of Prophet Mohammed through his daughter Fatima Zahra

3rd Imam Husain Shaheed 

Son of First Imam Ali, Younger Grandson of Prophet Mohammed through his daughter Fatima Zahra, Younger Brother of Second Imam Hasan Mujataba

4th Imam Ali Sajjad, Zainul Aabideen 

Son of Third Imam Husain Shaheed

5th Imam Mohammed Baaqir 

Son of Fourth Imam Ali Sajjad, Zainul Aabideen

6th Imam Ja'far Saadiq 

Son of Fifth Imam Mohammed Baaqir

7th Imam Musa Kaazim 

Son of Sixth Imam Ja'far Saadiq

8th Imam Ali Reda 

Son of Seventh Imam Musa Kaazim

9th Imam Mohammed Jawwad, Taqi 

Son of Eighth Imam Ali Reda

10th Imam Ali Haadi, Naqi 

Son of Ninth Imam Mohammed Jawwaad, Taqi

11th Imam Hasan Askari 

Son of Tenth Imam Ali Haadi, Naqi

12th Imam Mohammed Mahdi 

The Last Imam, son of Eleventh Imam Hasan Askari, he continues to live in state of metaphysical existence since his Occultation (Ghaybah), will Reappear (Zahoor) by command of God, before Resurrection along with Jesus Christ. He will establish Peace, Justice, Law and True Islamic Order.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

People dissociated in Shia Islam

1) Umar son of Khattab

  1. Prevented Prophet Mohammed from writing his will in last hours.
  2. Usurped Imam Ali's (Prophet's cousin) right for caliphate, made Abu Bakr 1st Caliph.
  3. Assaulted Fatima Zahra (Prophet's daughter), she later miscarried her baby and passed away.
  4. Forbade legal rulings in Islam, also, innovated illegal rulings in Islam.
  5. Ran away from battle of Uhad and Hunain.
  6. Had questioned prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammed at event of Hudaibiyah truce.

2) Abu Bakr son of Abu Quhafa

  1. Usurped Imam Ali's (Prophet's cousin) right for caliphate, became 1st Caliph.
  2. Snatched Fatima Zahra's (Prophet's daughter) properties of Fidak and Khaybar gardens, citing lame excuses. Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger with Abu Bakr.
  3. Wrote a will and declared Umar s/o Khattab to be next caliph, without any authority to do so, remember Prophet Mohammed himself was prevented to write a will.

3) Uthman son of Affaan

  1. Had ran away from Uhad battle, defying Prophet Mohammed's clear orders.
  2. Was named in committee to propose next caliph by Umar s/o Khattab, agreed to terms and conditions to become caliph by other members, terms and conditions had no Qur'anic sanctions, thus, Imam Ali had denied the terms.
  3. Cancelled the orders of Prophet Mohammed for life extermination from Madina for Marwan s/o Hakam (Uthman's son in law) and his father, allowed both of them re-entry in Madina.
  4. Exterminated Abu Darr Ghiffari, a loyal companion (Sahabi) of Prophet Mohammed from Madina, he died due to starvation in nearby desert of Rabada.
  5. Made Ommayyads (his family clan) chiefs, governors, and jurists, turned political power into their family monopoly.

4) Aisha, widow of Prophet Mohammed, daughter of Abu Bakr

  1. Received warnings for divorce from Prophet Mohammed in Quran (Surah Tahrim).
  2. Neglected the Quranic orders to live seclusive life by undertaking pilgrimage to Makka after Prophet Mohammed.
  3. Declared open war on Imam Ali's caliphate and accused him of Uthman's murder.
  4. She herself went at battle-field in Basra, Iraq, fought battle of Jamal and lost the battle, however, she was freely sent back to Madina by Imam Ali.

5) Hafsa, widow of Prophet Mohammed, daughter of Umar

  1. Received warnings for divorce from Prophet Mohammed in Quran (Surah Tahrim).

6) Abu Sufyan son of Harb

  1. Staunchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed before converting to Islam, yet his actions remained hypocritic.
  2. Himself being Ommayyad leader, played important role in power monopoly during Uthman's reign.

7) Hinda wife of Abu Sufyan, daughter of Utba

  1. Stanchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed prior to her conversion, Prophet Mohammed ordered her never to come in front of him; even after her conversion.
  2. She was the one who had cannibalised Hamza (Prophet's uncle) during Uhad battle, she had slit open and chewed liver of Hamza.

8) Mauwiya, son of Abu Sufyan and Hinda, father of Yazid

  1. Had converted to Islam only after Abu Sufyan's pressure, but remained hypocritic.
  2. Accused Imam Ali of murder of Uthman (his cousin, 3rd caliph)
  3. Rejected the decision to make Imam Ali as 4th Caliph, broke away from main stream Islam.
  4. Declared war on Imam Ali and Imam Ali's caliphate, fought battles with him, ie. Siffin.
  5. Murdered numerous Companions (Sahaba) of Prophet Mohammed, namely: Ammar s/o Yasir, Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr (Imam Ali's adopted son).
  6. Murdered 2nd Imam Hasan (Prophet's grandson) after truce through Imam Hasan's wife.
  7. Broke truce by nominating his son Yazid as next caliph, turned Islamic political power into Ommayyad dynasty.
  8. Desecrated the grave of Hamza (Prophet's uncle) in Uhad, citing  reasons of irrigation.
  9. Initiated the custom of public cursing of Imam Ali, even from pulpit of mosque during Friday sermons, the cursing was stopped later by Umar (another) s/o Abdullah during his caliphate after many years.

9) Abdur Rehman son of Auf

  1. Had been member of committee to propose next caliph as declared in illegal will of Umar.
  2. Put terms and conditions on Imam Ali that if they made him 3rd caliph; he will work under their pleasure and would take their opinions in all matters, Imam Ali denied those terms.
  3. Later, put those terms and conditions to Uthman, he agreed and was made 3rd caliph, they made Islam as their monopoly, which resulted in riots, and later murder of Uthman.

10) Abu Musa Ash'ari

  1. During truce offered by Mauwiya to Imam Ali after battle of Siffin, he was sent as arbitrator from Imam Ali's side.
  2. Imam Ali himself never appointed him as his arbitrator, Imam Ali recomended either Abdullah s/o Abbas (Prophet's another cousin) or Malik Ashtar, both were rejected by public.
  3. When Imam Ali found opposition for his choice, he isolated himself from the matter, and Abu Musa Ash'ari was sent as his arbitrator without his consent.
  4. Beguiled by Amr s/o A'as, he openly rejected the authority of Imam Ali on caliphate, and gave baseless declaration that he impeached Imam Ali from caliphate.

11) Talha son of Obaidullah

  1. Had been member of committee to chose 3rd caliph in illegal will of Umar s/o Khattab, tried his best to prevent Imam Ali to be taken as first priority by committee.
  2. Later, accused Imam Ali for murder of Uthman.
  3. Declared open war on Imam Ali, fought battle of Jamal, Basra, Iraq along with Aisha (Prophet's widow).
  4. Sensing defeat tried to ran away from battle field but was killed by Marwan s/o Hakam his own ally, while running.

12) Abu Obaidah son of Jarraah

  1. Abu Obaidah was at Saqifa council when Abu Bakr was chosen as first caliph, he insisted that he be made 1st Caliph, but lost the election to Abu Bakr.

13) Mughaira son of Shu'ba

  1. He practiced open opposition for Imam Ali during reign of Uthman.
  2. He circulated illogical Hadiths (Narrations like Peeing while standing, purchasing onion to get Paradise etc).

14) Abu Huraira

  1. His status is similar to Mughaira, he too circulated illogical hadith (narrations about Prophet Moses' nudity etc)
  2. Took active side of Mauwiya, since he was poor and Mauwiya funded him as and when the latter desired.

15) Anas son of Malik

  1. Openly opposed Imam Ali
  2. Circulated Hadith (narrations) which nullified position of Family members of Prophet Mohammed and Imam Ali in particular.

16) Wahshi son of Harb

  1. Henchmen of Hinda and Abu Sufyan, to kill Hamza (Prophet's uncle).

17) Amr son of Aa's

  1. Worst politician, played barbaric politics for Mauwiya
  2. Person behind the idea to tie Qur'an on spear to stop army of Imam Ali from marching ahead, resulted in blasphemy and riots.
  3. Chief ally of Mauwiya during his war against Imam Ali.
  4. Main co-accused behind murder of prominent companions (Sahaba) like: Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr (Imam Ali's adopted son) and Malik Ashtar in Egypt.

18) Khalid son of Walid

  1. Murdered a companion (Sahaba) Malik s/o Nuwaira in Najd area when latter denied his vote in favour of Abu Bakr as 1st Caliph. Malik s/o Nuwaira was made governor of Najd by Prophet Mohammed himself.
  2. Raped Malik's s/o Nuwaira wife 'Laila', after her husband's murder.
  3. Member of the gang that assaulted the house of Imam Ali and in which Fatima Zahra the daughter of Prophet Mohammed was brutally wounded, miscarried her baby and later got martyred

19) Abdullah son of Umar
  1. Son of 2nd Caliph Umar, declared his isolation from politics yet gave unconditional allegiance to Yazid's governor in favour of Yazid.

20) Marwaan son of Hakam

  1. Son in law of 3rd Caliph Uthman, Marwan was exterminated by Prophet Mohammed himself from Madina for lifetime.
  2. He mocked Prophet Mohammed on several occasions.
  3. Uthman, when he became 3rd caliph cancelled the orders of Prophet Mohammed and allowed him re-entry in Madina
  4. Had been chief ally of Uthman during Uthman's reign.
  5. Accused Imam Ali for murder of Uthman.
  6. Declared open war on Imam Ali.
  7. Remained chief enemy of Prophet's family.
  8. After Yazid's death declared himself caliph, and started Marwanide branch of Ommayad caliphate.

21) Hakam son of Waail

  1. Father of Marwan, he too was exterminated for lifetime from Madina by Prophet Mohammed himself.
  2. Uthman his son's father in law allowed him re-entry in Madina, cancelling orders of Prophet Mohammed, when Uthman became 3rd caliph.

22) Yazid son of Mauwiya

  1. Chief person behind the tragedy of Karbala, wherein, Grandson of Prophet Mohammed 'Husain' was mercilessly martyred along with 71 other men of 3rd Imam Husain, including a six month baby of Imam Husain.
  2. Practiced worst form of cruelty during his reign.
  3. Had sent an army to attack holy cities of Makka and Madina, Ka'ba ( House of Allah) was attacked with catapult, both sanctuaries (Haramain) were desecrated.
  4. Imprisoned Granddaughters of Prophet Mohammed along with other women and children, after arresting them when Imam Husain and his men were martyred in Karbala.
  5. Declared openly that Islam was a folly, and rejoiced that he had taken revenge for loss of his forefathers at hand of Prophet Mohammed in battle of Badr.

23) Yazid son of Abu Sufyan

  1. Was nominated was governor of Syria by Umar s/o Khattab, but he died and he was replaced by Mauwiya his brother by Umar the 2nd Caliph.

24) Ziyad son of Abu Sufyan

  1. Chief member of Ommayyad power monopoly, enemy of clan of Prophet Mohammed.

25) Obaidullah son of Ziyad (Ibn Marjaana)

  1. Son of Ziyad and cousin of Yazid, he was appointed governor of Kufa by Yazid with command to deal with Husain (Prophet's grandson).
  2. Ordered the killing of 'Muslim s/o Aqeel' cousin of 3rd Imam Husain.
  3. Murdered numerous companions (Sahaba) in Kufa during his reign of terror.
  4. Haani s/o Urwa, Muslim s/o Aqeel, Meesam Teemar were murdered as they were chief supporters of 3rd Imam Husain. Haani was shot with spears, Muslim was thrown from castle tower and Meesam was crucified.
  5. He undertook the command of Battle of Karbala.
  6. It was he who imprisoned Granddaughters of Prophet Mohammed along with other ladies, assaulted them, and later sent them to Yazid in Damascus as prisoners.

26) Ka'ab Al Ahbar

  1. Imam Ali declared him a hypocrite and a liar, he had converted to Islam to acquire power.
  2. Umar s/o Khattab 2nd Caliph made him his chief adviser.
  3. After Umar's death he went and served at court of Mauwiya

27) Umar son of Sa'ad

  1. Commander of the army which mercilessly slaughtered the family members of Prophet Mohammed, in Karbala.
  2. Committed worst atrocities on 3rd Imam Husain's (Prophet's grandson) camp.
  3. Declared that he is the first person to fire the first shot at Husain's camp and thus officially starting the battle of Karbala.

28) Walid son of Uqba

  1. Step brother of 3rd Caliph Uthman, who nominated him as his governor to Kufa.
  2. Openly, practised drinking, and thereby altered prayers, was later called back by Uthman.
  3. Thereafter, served at court of Mauwiya.

These two following persons proved different from other open enemies of Imam Ali:

1) Zubair son of Awwam

He was a staunch supporter of Imam Ali and objected Abu Bakr as first Caliph but later changed sides after Umar Khattab on his deathbed formed the committee for next caliph, Zubair too had his name in the committee. Later fought with Imam Ali, but showed remorse right amidst battle, left the battle, but was killed by his former ally Talha s/o Obaidullah. 

2) Sa'ad son of Abu Waqqas

Umar Khattab had named him too in the committee for next caliph. Didn't paid allegiance to Imam Ali as 4th Caliph, but openly rejected Mauwiya's proposal with regards to cursing Imam Ali or waging war on him. Neither favoured nor opposed Imam Ali, but remained isolated.