Friday, 28 December 2012

How Abu Bakr became Caliph

Prophet Mohammed passed away on 28th Safar 11 AH (23rd May 632 AD) in Madina. Few days back he had performed his first as well as last Hajj (Pilgrimage) to Makka. 

En route to Madina, Prophet Mohammed on the day of Solar Equinox ordered an arrangement for an important declaration to be made. The location was Ghadeer valley and the date was 18th Dhul Hajja 10 AH (20th March 632 AD). 

Prophet Mohammed declared Ali son of Abu Talib (his brother and son in law) to be absolute commander of all faithfuls (Amir al Mo'mineen) on Divine Orders he said to have received. Thus Imamat (Divinely appointed leadership) of Ali was established by none else but Prophet Mohammed himself.

Prophet Mohammed also declared that after him there will be twelve deputies of him till the day of Resurrection. People were asked to pay allegience to Ali son of Abu Talib. Prophet Mohammed than declared the following verse of Quran:

[Qur'an 3:5] This day I have perfected for you your religion, completed my favour upon you and have chosen for you Islam as you religion.

Thus, Prophet Mohammed declared that his Divine Mission was now complete, also, Ali would execute his duties of guidance on his behalf as Imam (Divinely appointed leader); since, no more prophets or messengers were to come after him. Prophet Mohammed declared his legacy consisted of Quran and His family members. There was no doubt left in minds of people as to who should lead the community after Prophet Mohammed.

Prophet Mohammed returned to Madina, his health began to deteriorate as the effects of poison given to him at Khaybar siege were now becoming evident. Prophet Mohammed also sensed that though his declarations about his heir were clear but people had began to doubt it during his very life, hypocrite group had some personal motives among these people.

Prophet Mohammed thus gathered his companions around him and ordered for pen and papers so that he may write his will which would clear all remaining doubts if any about his previous declaration. People around him accused him to be unfit to will, he was also declared to be in mentally unfit conditions for will. 

Umar Khattab (who later became 2nd Caliph) was also present in the gathering. Umar Khattab himself declared Prophet Mohammed to be seriously ill. Therefore he declared Quran and Prophet's convention were enough for community. Prophet Mohammed asked these people to leave him alone instantly. 

Abdullah son Abbas (Prophet’s cousin) later declared that that Thursday was most unfortunate for Islam when Prophet Mohammed himself was prevented from writing his will.

When Prophet Mohammed passed away his funeral rites were most important duties for Muslims, but none gathered up to perform or take part into it except few. All as they got news began to be part of the controversy: now who should be followed and why. 

In such environment Ali son of Abu Talib (cousin brother and son in law) performed all funeral duties of Prophet Mohammed. Ali son of Abu Talib and Abbas son of Abdul Mutallib (Prophet’s uncle) gave funeral bath to body of Prophet Mohammed and shrouded him. Ali dug the grave.

Before burial when Funeral prayers were to be performed few individual less than 20 gathered up. Ali led the funeral prayers and laid Prophet Mohammed to rest inside Masjid Nabawi (Prophet's mosque) in Madina.

People felt more important duty was to appoint a leader first, so they gathered up here and there to discuss the issue. Abu Bakr and Umar were together when they heard the news that one such gathering was held at Saqifa Banu Saida (A house) where the Caliph (successor) would be finalised. They wasted no time and hurriedly went there.

Lots of commotion was going over there. Muhajirs (Makkan emmigrants) and Ansaar (Madinites) each were demanding caliph be from them. Among Ansaar (Madinites) Aus and Khazraj were demanding Caliph be from among them. Abu Bakr shouted at Ansaar and asked them not to be the first to start controversy in Islam when they had been the first helpers of Islam.

Ansaars (Madinites) were adamant at first, later concluded that there would be two caliphs; one from Makkans and another from Madinites. Each Ansaar clan demanding Caliph should be from their clan.

Few among them nominated Abu Obada son of Jarrah to be the caliph. Abu Bakr also nominated him along with Umar Khattab, and asked to select any one from among them. Umar was pretty sure his caliphate would be challenged, thus the time was not appropriate for him to step up. He took hands of Abu Bakr and declared to have paid his allegience to Abu Bakr as Caliph.

Instantly, some others also paid allegience to Abu bakr as Caliph. Supporters of Abu Obada argued with Umar that what he did amounted to murder of Abu Obada. Umar declared that it was Allah who dealt with Abu Obada and not him. 

Thus, in such turmoil and controversy Abu Bakr was declared Caliph. Umar himself declared that so called election was hasty but declared it was necessary in his opinion. Later, Abu Bakr went to Prophet's mosque and declared his caliphate from pulpit of Prophet Mohammed.

Chaos began as he began declaration of his caliphate on basis of above mentioned election. Companions got divided, as majority of them were never present at election at first, secondly many knew Ali was rightful caliph. Some however also gave their allegience to Abu Bakr.

Salman Farsi, Bilal Habashi, Khabbat bin Arit, Huzaifa Yamani, Ammar bin Yasir, Abdullah bin Masud, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Jabir bin Abdullah, Ubay bin Ka'ab, Abu Darr Ghiffari, Miqdad Kindi were staunchest supporter of Ali and declared Abu Bakr an illegitimate caliph.

Prophet Mohammed's family members also declared the whole election as illegitimate and against the final Will of Prophet Mohammed. Ali son of Abu Talib himself along with Abbas bin Abdul Mutallib (Prophet's uncle), Abdullah bin Abbas (Prophet's cousin) and others declared the whole election and caliphate to be illegitimate.

Other companions also declared it to be un-rightful, among them were Zubair son of Awwam son in law of Abu Bakr. He also favoured Ali's caliphate on that occasion. Abu Sufyan who had outwardly become Muslim also opposed Abu Bakr's caliphate in favour of Ali’s.

Fatima Zahra the daughter of Prophet Mohammed was herself shocked about the news and objected to it. She had Fidak, a date garden, gifted to her  by Prophet himself. Abu Bakr snatched away the property and declared it to be State’s property citing ‘prophets don’t leave properties as legacy rather all they leave becomes charity’ as a reason.

Fatima Zahra challenged Abu Bakr in front of all in mosque and demanded the property’s return, Ali also assisted her in the demand, Abu Bakr denied and remained adamant. Fatima Zahra openly declared her opposition and anger for Abu Bakr in courtyard of Prophet’s mosque.

Ali was also convinced that his Imamat (Divinely appointed leadership) was safe since it could never be usurped, and he also had immense supporters to acknowledge his Imamat. Caliphate was never a necessity for executing Imamat in his opinion.

Thus, Abu Bakr’s caliphate was never unchallenged as others were independently following Ali as spiritual chief yet opposed Abu Bakr’s political leadership.

Umar took few of his supporters to the house of Ali. Ali was convinced that most people had betrayed Prophet Mohammed regarding the will. Ali was not in opinion of waging war, since time was critical and an open war at such time would have been final blow to Islam.

In that incident assaults were done to the house which Prophet Mohammed had declared to be his own home. Fatima Zahra got seriously injured during the incident and passed away following a miscarriage and injury.

She was secretly buried and Abu Bakr and his allies were not allowed to accompany. Abu Bakr later learnt from some source that Fatima Zahra had passed away. It was just few weeks since Prophet Mohammed had passed away.

With the above incidents and assaults rift between two sides widened and those who staunchly supported Ali as Caliph began to be called Shiat Ali (Supporters of Ali) or simply as Shia. These incidents divided Muslims into two sects Shia and the other those who supported Abu Bakr as Sunni (Ahlul Sunnah).

Shias are accused of not following Companions, these people who were first to be called as Shia were companions themselves, thus, Shias of today accept all those companions who started Shiat (support) for Ali.

Above was the scene of Madina, other cities also declared opposition towards Abu Bakr. Umar and Abu Bakr in such an environment started a junta. Abu Bakr on advices of Umar started to send military envoys to different cities to get allegiance for him, and to collect all charities, tributes, taxes etc for him.

Few culprits from here and there citing opposition for Abu Bakr started parallel caliphate, some even declared themselves prophets. This was the effect of caliphate of Abu Bakr.

Not all cities became victims of false prophets; most cities were just opposed to caliphate of Abu Bakr in favour of Ali. Abu Bakr sent envoys and whichever chief opposed his caliphate, was without any waste of time accused of declaring himself prophet and was executed.

An envoy under leadership of Khalid son of Walid went towards Najd area, Prophet himself had appointed Malik son of Nuwaira as its chief. Khalid demanded allegiance from him for Abu Bakr but Malik denied and did not either hand over State’s tribute to him. Khalid accused Malik of declaring himself as prophet and executed him.

Khalid after executing Malik continued the assault and raped his widow Laila on pretext that he would later marry her. Such actions resulted opposition from his envoy camp as well. Abu Dujana, who was under Khalid’s command left him and returned to Madina to lodge a complaint.

Umar who already had frictions with Khalid when heard the incident advised Abu Bakr to burn Khalid alive, to which Abu Bakr dismissing it said: Khalid is 'Sword of Allah', it is unsheathed, I won’t dare to put it back in sheath. Such was the manner in which Abu Bakr’s caliphate was consolidated.

Islam’s mission was confused with military ambitions, armies were sent here and there for capture and spoils were sent to Madina. Military advancement was declared advancement of Islam. Abu Bakr ruled for 2 ½ years and later died. This was the time when Islam as whole was accused of spreading itself on basis of sword.

Before death when Abu Bakr was on his death bed seriously ill asked a will to be written, this was written by Uthman son of Affan (later third Caliph). Note that, Prophet Mohammed was not allowed to write a will since he was declared to be unfit. Now, Abu Bakr, who frequently lost consciousness, was declaring his will.

Prophet Mohammed was not allowed to write the will, also Umar had declared: since Prophet was ill, Quran and Prophet’s conventions were enough for us, didn’t objected to seriously ill Abu Bakr’s will, for obvious reason!

Abu Bakr nominated Umar son of Khattab as next Caliph in his will, when he died Umar’s started his caliphate.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Monday, 24 December 2012

Sorrows of Orphan Baby Sakina, Imam Husain's daughter

After Karbala, from Kufa to Damascus Imam Husain's left out family was captured and imprisoned, among them was one 4 years old baby Sakina (as), she too went through sorrows, among those a few:

4 yrs old thirsty, slapped, beaten up, orphan, bleeding, exhausted, handcuffed, chained, tired princess baby Sakina (as) conversing with her ailing, chained brother Imam Zainul Abideen (as):

Baby Sakina (as): What happens when thirst reaches it's utmost limit?
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): My baby what makes you ask this question? Dear don't ask these questions......
Baby Sakina (as): No! I want to know tell me what happens?
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): One feels as if thorns have appeared on tongue, dear!
Baby Sakina (as): What if thirst is still not quenched, still further?
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): One feels as if blood in body is boiling...
Baby Sakina (as): What if thirst is still not quenched, still further?
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): Stop dear, I can't answer!
Baby Sakina (as): No! I want to know tell me what happens?
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): Dear, one feels as if bones have started to melt....
Baby Sakina (as): Then brother, Sakina (as) is going through this stage, I feel as if my bones are melting....

Later in Prison:

4 yrs old thirsty, slapped, beaten up, orphan, bleeding, exhausted, handcuffed, chained, tired princess prisoner baby Sakina (as) used to cry loudly in prison, accursed Yazid got disturbed in nearby palace, he ordered his guards thus:

Guards: Ali [Imam Zainul Abideen (as)] take this baby along with us, its an order.
Chained and handcuffed Imam Zainul Abideen (as) some how picks up Sakina (as) in arms and started to walk behind the guards.
Guards kept walking in cellar, and stopped at a dark underground barrack there.
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): Why you bought us here?
Guard: Wait!
Guard opens the door, and gets aside swiftly, Imam Zainul Abideen (as) feels a hot air blow from the underground barrack as if not opened since years.
Guard: Yazid ordered us to put Baby Sakina (as) alone in this barrack, because she had disturbed his sleep.
Imam Zainul Abideen (as) grabs Sakina (as) tightly on his chest, Sakina (as) also grabbed him tightly when she heard the order.
Imam Zainul Abideen (as): No, she is a baby of 4 years, she can't stay alone, forget about dark cellar, Oh God!
Guards forcibly opened the arms of Imam Zainul Abideen (as), snatched Baby Sakina (as) and threw her in the cellar, she kept shouting, Imam Zainul Abideen (as) was forcibly bought in the upper barrack. Slowly slowly Sakina (as) became silent day by day. Few days later when she was bought back in main barrack.
All imprisoned ladies hugged her but she kept silent, she looked at her father's cut head on spear and said:
Sakina (as): Oh father have you ever seen an old lady of my age, if not then see.....
Sakina (as) began to show grey hair of her to her father's head on spear. She later passed away in prison. Her grave lies in what was prison of Damascus, Syria during accursed Yazid's illegitimate caliphate.

Today 9th Safar, Martyrdom anniversary of Baby Sakina (as)

Thursday, 20 December 2012

Shia view: Mohammed, a Prophet by birth

Shia Muslims believe Mohammed is Prophet and Messenger of God like any other Muslim believes, but still there is great difference between this belief of Shia and other Muslims.

Shia believe Prophet Mohammed was a Prophet even when he was born. Rather Shia Muslims believe Prophet Mohammed was Prophet even before creation, when God had created just his 'Noor' (Celestial Luminescence). 

This is what differentiate Shia belief from other's belief. Since, Most Sunni (Ahlul Sunna) believe Prophet Mohammed was gifted with prophet-hood and messenger-ship at age of forty, in the cave of Hira. Shia deny any such ideas.

Shia collection of hadith (anthology) declare Prophet Mohammed as first creation of God that too as a Prophet and Messenger, even before any other creation existed. Prophet Mohammed is reported to have said:
Among all the creations of God, my 'Noor' (Celestial Luminescene) was first to be created. 
Shia hadith also report Prophet Mohammed to have said:
Adam was still midst water and mud while I was Prophet.
So called Muslim scholars (ignorant) of other sects had always accused Shia of blasphemy to degrade Shiadom in eyes of layman Muslims that Shia Muslims believe that prophet-hood had came for Ali but Archangel Gabriel got confused between Mohammed and Ali, and thinking Mohammed was Ali conferred prophet-hood on Mohammed instead of Ali. For Shia this is just a lie.

Shia consider Angels to be free from error (immaculate) thus no reason left for Gabriel to have made an error. Secondly, Shia never believe prophet-hood could be conferred upon because Shia belief states that prophets are created as prophets, they are prophet even when they are born.

Ahlul-Sunna have been questioning Shia that if Prophet Mohammed was born prophet what happened at cave of Hira? Didn't Prophet got scared from Gabriel? And various other funny questions.

Shia believe Prophet Mohammed never got scared from Archangel Gabriel. Shia believe Prophet Mohammed never got idea of prophecy being conferred on him from Waraqa son of Naufil as Sunnis claim. Shia state Prophet Mohammed always knew he was Prophet, even before any other creation existed.

So what happened at Hira, a big question? Shia belief states that Prophet Mohammed was awaiting the Divine command of God to declare his prophet-hood. Archangel Gabriel bought the command of God to Prophet Mohammed that: O Prophet Mohammed time has come for you to declare your prophet-hood and messenger-ship. Prophet Mohammed happily received the command which he too was desperately waiting for and thenceforth declared that: He is a Prophet.

A very interesting inquiry which should be made from Sunnis is since all Muslim believe Prophet Mohammed is superior to all humans, if this is believed and he became prophet at age of 40 years is also believed, can Sunnis answer Shia that what was status of Prophet Mohammed from his birth up to age of 40? If he was not a prophet he must have been an Ummati (follower) of previous prophet, in that case how can a follower of previous prophet be superior to all human including that previous prophet? 

How funny it is to believe that he was under command (an Ummati) of the previous prophet and thus lower in status of that previous prophet (Ummati is lower in status than his prophet) and all of sudden at age of 40 became a prophet himself and got raised to highest status even higher that the status of the previous prophet who had been higher than him since last 39 years. Thus, Shia beliefs are precise, accurate and free from such errors.

Shia also deny that Qur'an was revealed slowly slowly on Prophet Mohammed for 23 long years, we believe whole Qur'an was revealed on Prophet Mohammed all at once in cave Hira, it was 23rd night of Ramadan 13 BH/ 611 AD which is called 'Lailatul Qadr' the night of power.

Obvious question which Sunni people ask Shia as counter question is: then why Gabriel continued to come to Prophet for 23 years? Well, Qur'an was revealed all at once, but which verse was to be declared when was still kept under Divine order. God ordered Prophet Mohammed through Gabriel which verse was to be declared when and where this process continued for long 23 years.

To summarize Shia belief on Prophet Mohammed:
1) Prophet Mohammed is first creation of God, his 'Noor' (Celestial Luminescene) was first creation of God, he was made a prophet.
2) Prophet Mohammed never became a prophet at age of forty but had always been a prophet.
3) Prophet Mohammed never got scared from Archangel Gabriel.
4) Whole Qur'an was all at once revealed upon Prophet Mohammed on 23rd Ramadan 13 BH (611 AD) in cave of Hira.
5) Which verse was to be declared when and where was the reason why Gabriel continued to come to Prophet Mohammed on Divine orders for long 23 years.

Back to:  Prophet Mohammed In Shia Islam 

O Allah! Peace and Salutations be upon Mohammed and Family of Mohammed.

Monday, 10 December 2012

Prophet's role in Madina, and capture of Makka

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Prophet Mohammed migrated from Makka to Madina, before entering into Madina, Prophet encamped at Quba, it's suburb. Prophet stayed there for few days and erected Mosque of Quba, this was to become the first mosque of Islam. Prophet himself performed labour job in construction of Quba Mosque and laid bricks and performed other manual construction works.

Few days later, Prophet entered Madina. Till then Madina was known by it's older name: Yasrib (City of disease). Madina had Jewish majority. Aus and Khazraj were chief tribes of Madina and had deep enmity. Madina, was on verge of devastation due to civil war among tribes. Prophet was actually invited for that very purpose; to solve problems of Madina.

With Prophet taking care of Madina, it began to be referred to as Madina tun Nabi (City of Prophet), shortly as Madina (City). Prophet Mohammed drafted the Constitution of Madina which was agreeable to all. The Constitution of Madina guaranteed freedom of religion to Muslims, Jews, Christians and others. It guaranteed various other human and civil rights to people. It had various military provision to consolidate Madina. Situation of Madina improved and Prophet became popular and chief of Madina.

Prophet Mohammed initiated brotherhood among migrated Makkan (Muhajirs) and Madinites (Ansaars/ Helpers). People were asked to choose a brother from each other and treat them as real brother, ties between them improved and Madina became a prototype of Islamic society. Difference between Aus and Khazraj also wiped away.

Friction between some Jews and Muslims were routine. There were confusions about Muslims as to whether they were Jewish sect or Makkan neo-pagan. Prophet erected Mosque of Madina by purchasing the plot, himself performed manual labour in it's construction. Epi-centre of prayers (Qibla) was changed on order of God from Jerusalem to Makka, these established Islam as independent and separate from both Jews and pagans.

Makkans, looted the remant properties of Muslims, Ommayyads were in forefront, later waged war on Prophet. Badr was fought, Muslims had 313 men while Makkan bought 1000 men, Muslims won the battle. Ommayyads lost their warlords like Utba (Yazid's maternal grandfather), Walid (Utba's son), and others. Another chief by same name Ommayya, Abu Jahal etc were also killed, this enraged Makkans. Prophet gave prisoner of war status and facilities to captured Makkans.

Enraged by loss of Badr, Abu Sufyan (Yazid's paternal grandfather) and his wife Hinda (Utba's daughter) swore to avenge the loss, they declared attack on Prophet, this time at Ohad with 5000 men, Muslims had 1000 men. Prophet ordered Uthman (future third calpih) who was also an Ommayyad but a Muslim now as a guard to prevent possible back attack. Prophet's order were precise and detailed. Muslim initially won the battle.

However, Uthman and his band left the post and began to loot spoils, Khalid son of Walid attacked from back on Muslims to cause trauma. Prophet himself was wounded, Umar son of Khattab (future 2nd caliph) ran away from battlefield.

Hamza Prophet's uncle was shot with a spear, Hinda slit open body of Hamza canibalised him (chewed liver) as revenge for her father. Abu Sufyan praised idols of Makka, and declared Ohad was revenge of Badr. 

Muslim martyrs were mutilated, their noses, eye lashes, ears, fingers and other body parts were cut off, Prophet grievously wept on Hamza and other Muslims. Uthman, and Umar later showed remorse on their fleet.

Abu Sufyan once again ordered attack on Prophet this time right in the city of Madina. Prophet as precaution had ordered a trench to be dug outside Madina, Makkan encamped outside Madina to find solution for breakthrough, however storm caused a failure for them and they went back.

Prophet Mohammed was now chief political power in whole Arabia. Prophet intended to visit Makka to perform pilgrimage with little band. Abu Sufyan and other Makkans vowed not to allow him entry. However, a truce was made between them, that Muslim prisoners would not be returned and Makkan prisoners must be returned, and following year Muslim could perform pilgrimage. Prophet agreed on one sided truce. Clans were free to join either sides, and truce was to be for ten years. Umar son of Khattab (future 2nd caliph) cast doubt on Prophet and had argument with him as well.

A particular Jewish clan waged war on Muslims, they made pact with Makkans as well. Khaybar their centre was attacked. Khaybar was captured because of heroic bravery of Ali son of Abu Talib. During truce, Prophet's missionary activities were at zenith and Arabia was getting converted into Islam. This was time when most of Arabia became Muslim.

Prophet knew Makkans and was sure they would break the treaty in between. Makkans did exactly that and attacked a clan on Muslim side. Now, Prophet had enough reason to attack Makka for capture. Prophet however put three conditions either to break bond with that clan, compensate Muslims or end the truce, Makkans chose the third.

Prophet marched with 10000 men upon Makka, Abu Sufyan as it's chief was sure they can't resist him this time thus avoided any defense. Prophet entered Makka and granted general amnesty to every Makkan. Abu Sufyan and his colleagues lost all prestige and found themselves powerless. On such occassion Abu Sufyan as best option available chose to enter Islam, he convinced his son Mauwiya (Yazid's father), his wife Hinda and other Ommayyads to do the same. They entered Islam as hypocrites.

Ommayad activities were always evident enough that they never practised Islam by heart. When later they acquired power they crossed all boundaries of humanity in oppressing Hashmites and altering Islam. Had Husain's sacrifice not been there, there was to be no difference between true Islam and Ommayyad's terrorist pseudo islam. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Saturday, 8 December 2012

Prophets, Imams, Infallibility and Shia view

There is consensus among Muslims that God sent 124000 prophets to different places and civilisations. There were times when there were more than one prophet and there were times when there were no prophets, but at least one Imam (Divinely appointed leader) was always present on earth and would always remain present on earth till Resurrection.

Prophets and messengers are given God's canon and they are also administrator and executioner of that canon. This administration and execution of canon law is called 'Imamat' or Divinely appointed leadership. Thus, prophets and messengers were Imams as well.

But, there were times when there were no prophets nor messengers in such a time there was always one man who was Imam who was Divinely appointed to administer and execute the canon which was given by God to the lastest prophet or messenger.

Prophets, Messengers and Imams are infallible and immaculate, this is necessity of religion rather than a prestige, because God's message must always be present in pure form. Thus Prophets, Messengers and Imams (plural: Aimmah) are free from errors and commits no crime or sin.

People had changed books of God but His message always remained safe, this is through the agency of Imam. Imams preserves the true message of God.

Adam the first man was a prophet, after him numerous prophets, messengers came and God's canon went on towards perfection. Prophet Mohammed came as the Last Prophet, Last Messenger of God on earth. With Prophet Mohammed God's canon came in it's perfect form. No prophet, messenger would ever come after him.

God's canon in form of Qur'an is final, perfect canon and would remain so up to Resurrection, thus it is open for interpretation as per need of time. Only Shia Muslims consider Qur'an open for interpretation as per need of time, others have on their own authority forbidden any further interpretation.

This interpretation as per believed by Shia is to be done by Imam. Prophet Mohammed had professed that after him there would be exactly 12 Imams up to the day of Resurrection  they would interpret God's canon. 

After Prophet Mohammed passed away, Ali his cousin brother as well as his son in law as ordered by God (Message of Ghadeer) became 1st Imam, who was succeeded by his eldest son and then younger son and through his younger son, father son father son continued up to 12th Imam, who is Mohammed Mahdi, he is interpreter of Qur'an till the day of Resurrection.

Resurrection's date and time are in knowledge of God, it may take any timespan. Prophet Mohammed had professed that only 12 Imams would be there between him and Resurrection. The only solution is en lengthened life of at least one Imam.

An average person lives for average 60/70 years, so is also the case with Imams. Imams never began their Imamat from birth since preceding Imam was alive. So multiplication of 60/70 by 12 is not appropriate. Say an imam was to begin his office from age of 30 then they would have 30 years of Imamat, 12 Imam would make 360 years, but its already 1424 years ( from 632 AD to 2012), 12 Imam's combined lifespan was  never the solution, moreover Resurrection many take may more years, and Prophet Mohammed has professed only 12, and no gap must be there. 

Thus, answer to all such issues was en lengthening normal lifespan of at least one Imam. Exactly, the same thing happened, when 11th Imam Hasan Askari was martyred his son Imam Mohammed Mahdi the 12th Imam transformed from physical state into state of Occultation on Divine orders and continued to live through all these centuries, would live up to Resurrection and re-appear on Divine orders before resurrection on Divine orders.

There is no reason to assume all these things absurd. Qur'an, Bible and other books have talked about lengthy lifespans, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Melchizedek, Ezekiel (Khizr), Elijah's  lifespans are good examples. All Muslims believe Jesus Christ never died, and is living since 2042 years and would continue to live up to resurrection. So, also Imam Mohammed Mahdi is alive, hidden and active on Divine orders.

Thursday, 6 December 2012

Persecution on, Migration and Battles of Muslims

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Hashmite were followers of Abraham's faith, all ancestors of Prophet Mohammed were on Islam and practised Abraham's way. Prophet Mohammed declared Islam at age of 40 years. His family members were first to accept the prophet hood of Prophet Mohammed.

He later began to preach Islam to close friends, slowly Islam began to grow in idolatrous neighbour hood. Makkan polytheists Ommayyads in particular begin to sense danger which Islam posed to their polytheism and idolatry.

Those new Muslims who were slaves or poor faced the worse form of assaults either from their masters or prominent polytheists. Ommayyads like Abu Sufyan (Yazid's grandfather) son of Harb, Utba (Yazid's great grandfather) son of Abd Shams, Walid son of Utba, Hinda (Yazid's grandmother), Khalid son of Walid, Mauwiya (Yazid's father), Amr son of Aa's initiated persecution on such Muslims they found powerless. Other polytheists also joined them among them are another Ommayya son of Khalaf, Abu Jahal, Abu Lahab etc.

Bilal son of Ribah, who was slave of another Ommayya became symbol of torture, he had accepted Islam. His master ordered him to reject Islam, Bilal didn't. He was whipped, and dragged on streets, large stone was placed on his chest and made to lie in open desert sun all day. Bilal bore all this torture but stayed firm on Islam. He was later freed from Ommayya's slavery through purchase. He joint the camp of Prophet.

Khabbab son of Arit was another slave who was similarly tortured. He was tied and was put on burning pieces of coal, and asked to reject Islam, he too stayed firm on Islam, he too was freed later through purchase. Many other slave Muslims went through such trauma but were later freed through purchase. Many were martyred facing the trauma.

Ammar son of Yasir, along with his father Yasir and mother Sommaiyya had accepted Islam. They were severely tortured, Abu Jahal was prominent in their torture. Both Yasir and Sommaiyya were martyred during torture. Their hands and legs were tied to back of two camels which were made to run in different direction, their bodies were torn in pieces. They both (Yasir and Somaiyya) became key Islamic martyrs.

Prophet on such occasion advised such muslims to leave Makka and settle in Ethiopia. When such muslims settled down there. Abu Sufyan sent envoy under leadership of Amr (Ommayyad) son of Aa's to Ethiopian Emperor and asked him to arrest Muslims and send them back as culprits.

Ethiopian Emperor Negus was Christian, he sensed the gravity of matter and decided to hear both sides. Prophet's cousin Ja'far (Hashmite) son of Abu Talib headed the Muslim side. 

Ja'far clarified Islamic tenets: rejection of polytheism, idolatry and views on Jesus Christ as Prophet of Islam, Mary's immaculate personality etc. Negus rejected the appeal of Abu Sufyan's envoy and allowed Muslims a protected state in Ethiopia.

Muslims in Makka were too persecuted on daily basis. Prophet Mohammed too faced persecution, garbage was thrown at him, animal guts was thrown at him, stones were pelted on him. Thorns were placed on his route, burning bushes were thrown on him. As time passed deadly attacks with spears and stones began to be made. 

Prophet went to Taif, there too he was stoned, along with Zaid (his adopted son) both bled severely. In this environment Madinites called Prophet to settle in Madina, administer their situation and remove the chaos they were going through.

Prophet ordered migration to Madina. All Muslims left Makka for Madina. Prophet Mohammed, Abu Bakr his companion and his cousin brother Ali were only remaining Muslims in Makka.

Abu Sufyan along with Utba, Ommayya, Abu Jahl plotted to kill Prophet on particular night, vigil was kept on his house. Prophet asked Ali to lay on his bed to diguise Makkans. Prophet made arrangement for journey took Abu Bakr with him and left Makka.

Next they when Makkan found Ali in place of Prophet, became mad in anger. Abu Sufyan at once declared a bounty of 100 camels on Prophet alive or his head in case of dead.

Abu Sufyan also sent a party to search them in desert and kill Prophet on site they see him. Search party came at entrance of cave in which Prophet was taking rest, but pigeons came made nest and laid eggs, spiders made web at entrance, giving a glimpse that it was inhabited. Finally, Prophet Mohammed reached Madina.

Abu Sufyan and other Ommayyads began to loot all that was remaining property of Hashimites in Makka. Later they waged war on Prophet, Battle of Badr was fought. Ommayyads lost their warlords. They swore to avenge and had another battle at Ohad. 

In this battle Uthman's (Ommayyad) who was a Muslim now was asked to stay vigilant from back attack, but he left the site to loot bounty when initially Muslims won and Makkan attacked from back under the command of Khalid son of Walid. Prophet was fatally wounded, Muslims were slain and mutilated. Hamza uncle of Prophet was cannibalized by wife of Abu Sufyan.

Ommayad once again came for battle but trench dug by Prophet prevented them from attack. They always made secret pacts with few Jew clans who were at enmity with Muslims. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Wednesday, 5 December 2012

Rivalry of Ommayyads v/s Hashmites and Karbala

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Battle of Karbala was one battle in the age old war between Ommayyads and Hashmite clans. Even before Prophet Mohammed was born Ommayyads practised rivalry with Hashmites.

Makkan society was based on clans. Two prominent clans were Banu Hashim (Hashmite) and Banu Ommayya (Ommayyad). Makka was spiritual capital of Arabs.

Both political and spiritual leadership belonged to Hashmite. Prophet Mohammed was Hashmite by birth, when Prophet Mohammed declared Islam, Ommayyads who were already rival of Hashmite percieved Islam as another blow on their status and turned into most hostile enemies of Islam.

Hashmites and Ommayyads are named after Hashim and Ommayya respectively. Hashim was son of Abd Munaf. Hashim was also father of Abdul Mutallib, who was grandfather of Prophet Mohammed. Ommayya was adopted son of Abd Munaf. Legacy of Abd Munaf went to Hashim and became cause of rivalry.

On the eve of Prophet's birth Hashmite chief was Abdul Mutallib, Prophet's grandfather. Ommayyads oppossed Abdul Mutallib on various occassions but were unsuccessful. Abdullah father of Prophet Mohammed died before his birth so he came under care of grandfather.

After Abdul Mutallib's death, uncle of Prophet, Abu Talib father of Ali took Prophet under his care, Abu Talib also became chief of Hashmite. On Ommayyad side Utba grandson of Ommayya and his nephew and son in law Abu Sufyan (grandfather of Yazid) were Ommayyad chiefs.

When Prophet Mohammed declared Islam, Banu Ommayya turned into enemies of Islam. 
Prophet had influence of Abu Talib to protect him, till the time Abu Talib was alive Prophet's life was safe. 

Ommayyads however convinced few other clans and issued a social boycott against Hashimite. Hashmites were forced to starve or survive merely on Acacia barks, little bit business were secretely conducted by friendly clans. 

Finally, few Makkan leader sympathatic with Hashmite forced to ammend the provisions of document to give some relief to starving Hashmites. When document was taken out it eaten by termites, they took it as symbol of Divine cancellation. Boycott was ended. However these were worst periods for Hashmite and few days later Abu Talib passed away. Now, Prophet had no protection. 

Prophet had ordered those Muslims who could afford to settle in Ethiopia, of hatred Abu Sufyan sent Amr (Ommayyad) son of Aas to Ethiopian Emperor Negus to convince him not to allow Muslims to settle there. He listened to both sides, from Muslim side Ja'far (Prophet's cousin) son of Abu Talib gave clarifications, Negus finally allowed Muslims to settle in his country.

Various Ommayyads, Abu Sufyan (grandfather of Yazid) among them plotted to kill Prophet. Prophet migrated to Madina, as Madinites had invited him to settle in Madina. Prophet asked Ali (Abu Talib's) to lay asleep on his bed to disguise Ommayyads and started his journey. When Ommayyad couldn't find Prophet, Abu Sufyan put a bounty of 100 camels on Prophet (alive or head in case of dead).

After migration in period of few month Ommayyads began to loot Hashmite properties. Later, Ommayyads with other Makkan clans declared war on Prophet. Battle of Badr was fought. Ommayyads lost their chief leaders. Walid brother in law of Abu Sufyan was killed by Ali, Utba father in law of Abu Sufyan was killed by Hamza uncle of Prophet.

Ommayyads swore to avenge the loss at Badr, they gathered other clans of Makka and declared another war on Prophet, both armies met at Ohad. Abu Sufyan was commander of Makkans. Khalid son of Walid who was killed at Badr by Ali attacked Muslims from back side to cause trauma. Prophet Mohammed was fatally wounded. Hamza, Prophet's uncle was martyred. 

Hinda (grandmother of Yazid) wife of Abu Sufyan, as a revenge for her father's killing by Hamza in Badr, slit open the dead body of Hamza, she chewed liver of Hamza. They mutilated Muslim bodies also. Abu Sufyan raised slogan: We revenged Badr! Ommayyads continued their activities against Prophet.

Muslims slowly grew politically powerful. Prophet intended to perform pilgrimage to Makka but was prevented however a peace treaty with Makkans was made, Ommayyads were on side of Makkans. They later attacked Muslims, Prophet asked either to compensate or end the truce, they chose to end the truce. Prophet marched on Makka had a bloodless capture also granted general amnesty.

Ommayyads found themselves valueless and thus chose to accept Islam as best option available. They accepted Islam outwardly. Abu Sufyan, his son Mauwiya (Yazid's father), Hinda Abu Sufyan's wife and other Ommayyads became Muslims at such time when Islam was politically powerful.

Ommayyads were always busy with their silent anti-Islamic activities, on one occassion Prophet himself had to exterminate Marwan (Ommayyad) who later succeded Yazid as caliph and his father Hakam from Madina. Marwan was son in law of Uthman (Ommayyad) who later became 3rd caliph.

After Prophet passed away Uthman tried to cancel the order from both 1st and 2nd caliph but they denied the cancellation. Ali was chief of Hashmite after Prophet, also 1st Shia Imam.

When Uthman (Ommayyad) son of Affan became the third caliph first order he passed was he cancelled the extermination order of Prophet for Marwan and Hakam, and allowed both to once again enter Madina. 

Later Uthman exterminated Abu Dhar Ghiffari a trusted companion of Prophet from Madina because later spoke openly against activities of Uthman. Abu Dar died due to starvation in nearby Rabada desert. 

Uthman also appointed Ommayyads on high posts and incremented their power. Mauwiya (father of Yazid), governor or Syria were granted powers to exercise independence. An alcoholic Uqba (Ommayyad) son of Walid was appointed governor. People's trust was lost during Uthman's caliphate. As administration collapsed, people besieghed the house of Uthman for few days and later murdered him.

Ali was made the Caliph, Mauwiya challenged the caliphate and started his own parallel caliphate, this is how Ommayyad dynasty began, Mauwiya was Ommayad chief now. He accused Ali of Uthman's murder, Ali denied it although. Mauwiya found support from Aisha (Prophet's widow), they together waged war on Ali. Both armies fought in Basra, Ali won the war.

Mauwiya continued his war, Siffin was fought but Mauwiya sensing loss called for pact, which was resultless. Amr (Ommayyad) son of Aa's supported Mauwiya during these years.

When Ali was martyred, Mauwiya declared war on Hasan (Ali's eldest son also eldest grandson of Prophet) was now 2nd Shia Imam and chief of Hashmite. After several clashes Mauwiya offered truce with Hasan. Hasan accepted truce on his conditions of Qur'anic rule, amnesty and compensation for his men, and most important that Mauwiya would not appoint anyone as next caliph in his will. 

Mauwiya when the truce began to work allured Hasan's wife to poison him which she did. Hasan's body was taken for burial near Prophet's grave but was showered with arrows and was not allowed to be buried near Prophet, Ommayyads were the one who prevented the burial.

Husain younger brother of Hasan, became 3rd Shia Imam and also the chief of Hashmite, Husain respected the truce made by his brother and left it working. Mauwiya however broke the truce in his last days and appointed Yazid his son as next caliph, Mauwiya turned caliphate into a dynasty.

When Mauwiya died, Yazid declared himself caliph also became chief of Ommayyads.
 Yazid was sure without Husain's allegience his caliphate would appear illegitimate. Husain denied allegience since Mauwiya had broken the truce. 

Caliphate meant spiritual leadership as well, Yazid wanted to acquire spiritual leadership also to amend Islam according to his whims and fancies. Since, as Ommayyads he too had hated Islam, and now the time were favorable to attack Islam from within. He acquired verdicts from pseudo jurists that Husain was no more a muslim and thus Husain's murder was lawful in Islam.

He forced Husain for allegience which Husain denied in Madina later in Makka. When Husain turned towards Kufa, Yazid appointed Obaidullah (Ommayyad) son of his uncle Ziyad as governor who issued curfew in Kufa, arrested and executed Husain's supporters. Mesum a loyal supporter of Ali was crucified and his tongue was cut, Ommayyads practised such hatred.

Obaidullah sent an army towards possible route of Husain, they met at Karbala. Army was under command of Umar son of Sa'ad, they were asked to take allegience from Husain at any cost.
Water was blocked on Husain's camp, Husain lost his 71 men (brothers, sons, nephews, friends etc), He even lost a 6 month old son. 

Husain questioned the army what fault they find in him and why were they at war with him to disclose their real motive, they answered: hatred for your father. Husain declared: We would never accept such an islam whose caliph is a person like Yazid.

Husain was martyred. 72 heads were put on spears. Husain's left out family, ladies and children were taken as prisoners, these were grand daugthers of Prophet, they were handcuffed and paraded. Presented first to Oabidullah in Kufa and from there were sent to Yazid in Damascus.

In Damascus when Yazid was presented with heads on spear he shouted with joy: Neither any revelation had came nor did any religion, Hashmites had tricked people to acquire supremacy. 

He also said: Today I have taken revenge of my forefathers who were killed in Badr. He also sent captives to prison, kept them there, but as tension mounted and there was fear of riots gave order for their release.

Yazid ruled for three years and died in third year. In first year he ordered killing of Prophet's grandson, in second year he ordered attack on Madina, Prophet's mosque was turned into stable for horses and in third year he ordered attack on Makka in which Ka'ba was burnt.

Marwan son of Hakam (another Ommayyad) who was exterminated from Madina by Prophet himself became the next Caliph of pseudo islam. Ommayyads continued their hatred towards Hashmite until their dynasty came to an end.

To this day hatred in some or other form is evident from pseudo muslims, supporters of Banu Ommayya. These pseudo muslims even today praise each and every Ommayyad tyrants. But Husain's sacrifice is enough to differentiate between true Islam of Prophet and this Ommayyad brand of pseudo terrorist islam. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview