Wednesday, 23 October 2013

24 Dhul Hajja, Eid Mubahila in Shia Islam

Shia Muslims around the World celebrate 24th Dhul Hajja day of Islamic calender as Eid Mubahila (Festival of Imprecation). Following event had taken place, to commemorate the event celebration are made.

Mubahila (Imprecation) is an event around the end of ninth year of Prophet Mohammed's migration to Madina. Prophet Mohammed sent his official letters of office of prophet hood to the tribes around. One such letter was sent to Bishop of Najran, Yemen; it concluded either in the invitation to Islam or grant to exercise religious freedom under Islamic government.

The Bishop sent 14 members as his representatives to Madina, to discuss the issue with Prophet Mohammed, the deputation was headed by Abdul Masih Aaquib, Abdul Haris inb Alqama and Saiyed. They discussed the issue with Prophet Mohammed; who invited them to Islam, as truthful messenger from same God, who had sent Jesus Christ aforetime for guidance, in case they dont accept Islam they have to accept the conditions to exercise of religious freedom in accordance with Islamic rules (payment of Jizya).

They began to inquire from Prophet Mohammed about his stand on Jesus Christ, what Islam says about Jesus Christ. They were not convinced with the reply that Jesus Christ is not the son of God rather is messenger and prophet of God. As counter question, the representatives put question about who the father of Jesus Christ was? Since they too knew Islam believes in virgin and miraculous conception of Mary. They put this question deliberately to get reply 'no one', so they can conclude that if no one fathered Jesus Christ, it implied that he was son of God. 

God revealed the following verses of Holy Qur'an as a reply for them, which would put stop to their counter questions:

[Holy Quran 3:59] Inna ma'sala Isa ind Allah kama'sali Aadama khalqahu min turabinn summa qala lahu kun fayakun

(Indeed, the example of Jesus with Allah is like that of Adam. He created him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he became).

[Holy Qu'ran 3:60] Alhaqqu min Rabbika fala takun min almumtarin

(The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters).

Thus, this bought an end to their counter questions, they wanted to imply that since Jesus Christ had no father he should be taken as son of God. God replied in eyes of God, Jesus Christ was in likeness of Adam. If they go by their beliefs then Adam had greater right to be son of God since he had neihter father nor mother.This too could not convince them. 

Lately, the following verse was revealed upon Prophet Mohammed as last option possible:

[Holy Qur'an 3:61] Faman haajjaka fihi mim ba'di majaa'aka min alilmi faqul ta'aalu nadu abna'ana wa abna'akum wa nisa'ana wa nisa'akum wa anfusana wa anfusakum summa nabtahil fanajal la'anat Allahi ala alkazibin,

[Then whoever ie: Christians of Najran, Yemen; argues with you (Prophet Mohammed) about it (divinity of Jesus Christ) after knowledge (of Absolute Monotheism) has come to you - say, "Come, let us call our sons (Imam Hasan and Imam Husain) and your sons, our women (Fatima Zahra) and your women, ourselves ( Prophet Mohammed and Imam Ali) and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars (among us)]."

They, were asked to assemble with their sons, women and selves and curse each other and if Prophet Mohammed would be a liar, their curse would fall on him and vice-versa. Note, herein Prophet Mohammed had an option to take more then one woman, and another person who would be like him. He took just his daughter and cousin although there was an option but with eligibility 'free from lie'. It implies that no one was equivalent to his self except Imam Ali though other also had desires to be taken along with, also no other woman was competent enough except Fatima Zahra. 

Once, the Christian deputation accepted the imprecation contest, Salman Farsi, a faithful companion of Prophet Mohammed was asked to make arrangement and a podium.

On 24th Dhul Hajja 9 Hijra, Prophet Mohammed bought them (the aforesaid persons), the Christian deputations was awestruck and spellbound to see the illuminating personalities. They became sure enough that if these people utter curses against them they would perish away.Abdul Haris ibn Alqama exclaimed: "Verily I see a divine light on the faces of our combatants; I am beholding such faces among them as can make the mountains move from their spots if they pray to God. So beware! Never try to contest with them, otherwise you will perish and the entire Christendom will succumb to extinction!" Later, they signed a treaty to live as Christians and exercise religious freedom within Islamic government in return for Islamic tax 'Jizya'.

Prior to the event, it was here, when Prophet Mohammed was proceeding towards the podium with Imam Ali, Imam Hasan, Imam Husain and Fatima Zahra; that Muslims were also spellbound with divine luminescence on Prophed Mohammed and his family members, Muslims were not used to this luminescence prior to this event. And thus when asked about it, Prophet Mohammed is reported to have declared:

Awwalena Mohammed wa ausatena Mohammed wa aakharena Mohammed was kulluna Mohammed

(The first among us is Mohammed, the middle one among us is Mohammed, the last among us is Mohammed, all among us are Mohammed).

Thus, Shia Muslims celebrate this day of this great event as Eid (Festival), sweet dishes are prepared, greetings are exchanged, special supplication are recited.
Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Wednesday, 28 August 2013

Sunni Triple Talaaq (Divorce) illegal (Haraam) in Shia

Topic 28:

Majority in Sunni Islam considers Triple Talaaq (Divorce) in one instance as valid. Shia Islam considers it illegal (Haraam). Triple Talaq is when a Sunni husband divorces his wife by simply pronouncing the word ‘Talaaq/ Divorce’ three times in front of his wife, with or without intention to do so, with or without witnesses. In Shia Islam this form of Talaaq (Divorce) is illegal (Haraam).

Such a Talaaq (Divorce) was a pagan Arab custom which was made forbidden by Prophet Mohammed upon his followers. However, Umar son of Khattab the second caliph later considered it valid during third year of his reign. Shia don’t recognize Umar Khattab as an authority in Islam, thus also, consider such validation by Umar Khattab as illegal.

Majority in Sunni Islam considers uttering word ‘Talaaq’ three times in a single instance to wife, regardless of intention, joke, anger, compulsion, haste, witnesses; by a husband as legal. For reunion with same husband such divorced wives need to observe waiting period (3 months) then undergo ‘Halaala’. ‘Halaala’ is an Islamic law which forbids reunion between divorced couple, before wife remarries another man and gets irrevocable divorce from the latter and observes waiting period (3 months).

Mere utterance of word ‘Talaaq/ divorce’ to wife, how does it conveys whether ‘Talaq’ is given or ‘Talaaq’ is not given? How could this confusion be removed by that mere pronunciation of word ‘Talaaq’ in Sunni Islam’s majority; as to whether Talaaq is given or Talaaq is not given, Talaaq would be given or Talaaq would be thought over, Talaaq would happen or Talaaq must be decided etc? Shia Islam has no such ambiguity.

Absence of witnesses, state of anger, being under compulsion, being drunk, done as joke are no excuse, and divorce gets executed in majority of Sunni jurisprudence; remorse felt by husband or both don’t make any revoke on divorce.

Shia Islam consider it forbidden (Haraam); this whole custom of triple talaaq (divorce) in one instant. Shia rules require triple talaaq (divorce) for irrevocable divorce, but not in one instance. Shia need minimum three menstruation cycles of wife to get divorced. Only one talaaq (divorce) could be pronounced in one monthly cycle of wife.

Shia Islam also requires two trustworthy witnesses each time for each divorce to be valid. Shia Islam also requires proper divorce formula “my wife xyz is divorced”, to be properly pronounced to wife by husband or his representative for divorce to be valid.

Shia Islam considers all divorces which were pronounced without intention, in compulsion, or as jokes etc as invalid, and does not amount to divorces. Shia Islam also does not allow divorce to be pronounced if husband has had sexual intercourse with his wife during that menstrual cycle.

After each revocable divorce husband can nullify the revocable divorce by taking back his wife in marital tie through indulging in sexual intercourse with his wife. It is only after third irrevocable divorce that divorce happens in Shia Islam.

Shia Islam considers divorce as legal but makes it difficult up to the required level, wherein grievances could be wiped out, anger could subside, and marriage and family could be saved. Irrevocable divorce in majority of Sunni Islam could happen in few seconds; where as in Shia Islam it requires minimum three menstrual cycles.

In case of marriage (Nikah) witnesses are not required in Shia Islam, it also allows temporary marriage (Mutah), and this makes Shia marriages easier as compared to Sunni marriages.

Interestingly, divorce in Shia Islam as it requires two witnesses in each instance and minimum three menstrual cycles for irrevocable divorces makes it difficult compared to divorce in majority of Sunni jurisprudence, where in divorce can happen in few seconds.

Prophet Mohammed had ordered to make marriages as simple as possible so that society remains free from sexual evils. Also, since divorce breaks family, period for reconciliation need to be provided on basis of Qur’anic injunction, both above advantages are seen in Shia Islam. Shia Islam is the Islam as preached by true deputies of Prophet Mohammed who are twelve Imams of Shia Islam.

Back to: Marriage and Divorce in Shia Islam

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Wednesday, 14 August 2013

18th Dhul Hajja, Eid Ghadeer in Shia Islam

Topic 27:

In the year of farewell Hajj (10 Hijri) just after Hajj, when Prophet Mohammed was returning back to Madina, on his way to Madina, some distance away at Juhfa, Archangel Gabriel (Jibril) bought down the Divine orders to Prophet Mohammed so as to declare the following revelation of Holy Qur'an to people:

[Qur'an 5: 67] Ya ayyuhar Rasulo balligh maa unzila ilayka mir Rabbik, wa inl lam taf'al fama ballaghta risaalatahu. wa Allahu ya'simuka minan naas, innal Allaha la yahdil qaumal kaafiriin.

O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

After its revelation caravan entered the valley of Ghadeer Khum near Juhfa, Ghadeer Khum literally mean an oasis in archaic Arabic, thus the name. Here, afternoon prayers were offered. Prophet Mohammed asked people to make a pulpit near the oasis. A pulpit was made using saddles of camels and people swept the ground using date palm leaves, all arrangements were made. Prophet Mohammed delivered a heart touching speech and finally made Ali Murtada to stand beside him. He asked people: Do you know this man? They replied in boost: He is Ali son of Abu Talib. Prophet Mohammed began saying thus:

Allahu Maulaya wa anaa Maulatul Mo'min wa man kuntu Maulahu fahaza Aliyyun Maulahu!

that is: Allah is my Maula (Patron), I am Maula of all faithfuls and to whom so ever I am Maula then Ali is their Maula!

He prayed in favour of Ali (as) and his supporters and stepped down from pulpit. Instantly, Umar son of Khattab (the later second Caliph) got up and congratulated Ali Murtada and said: Greetings O son of Abu Talib, this day you have been made Commander of faithfuls (Amir ul Mo'mineen). Umar Khattab and all others present there paid their oaths of allegiance at hands of Ali son of Abu Talib. Oath ceremony is reported to have continued for around three consecutive days.

Salman Farsi (Persian) a loyal companion of Prophet Mohammed and a staunch supporter of Ali Murtada is reported to have added the statements of wilaayah (divinely appointed leadership) of Ali Murtada in the next Azaan (call for the prayers), which to this day forms a convention in Shia Azaan. People instantly objected to this and reported it to Prophet Mohammed. Prophet Mohammed told them that just then he had exactly preached what Salman had announced in call for prayers, he asked them didn't they remember? These people silently went away.

Points to be remembered: Allah asked Prophet Mohammed that if he didn't declared what was revealed it would imply he didn't convey any message of messengership of whole 23 years. It should be understood that now, if some one doesn't believe in this declaration it would imply the person didn't believed in any message from of 23 years.

Just after this event got over Archangel Gabriel bought Divine orders to declare the momentous revelation of Holy Qur'an, it forms the part of following verse:

[Qur'an 5:3] Alyauma akmaltu lakum diinakum wa atmamtu alaykum ni'mati wa raditu lakumul Islama diina

This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.

The day coincided with Solar Equinox (20th March), which is celebrated as Eid Nawroz (Ghadeer according to Solar calender).

Eid Ghadeer is core of Shia Islam, all Shia Muslims celebrate Eid Ghadeer with greatest enthusiasm; greetings, gifts are exchanged. 

Shia Muslims fast on day of Eid Ghadeer, ceremonial bath is taken, best clothes are worn, itr (scent) is applied. Sweets are eaten when possible. Houses are decorated with lights and festivities,  candles are also lighted.

Special prayers are offered, fraternity is established by holding the next persons' hands inside mosque, oaths are taken to help the next persons when in need, prayers are said in their favour. People hug each other. Oath of allegiance is oft repeated in favour of Imam Ali Murtada; Prophet Mohammed, Imam Ali Murtada and all other infallible are remembered.

Social gathering are arranged for religious lectures, eulogy ceremonies. Lavish family and social feast, dinner and lunch parties are arranged. Shia Islam preaches to spend this day in celebration, any sorrows are tried to be neglected on this day. Celebrative processions are undertaken. Eid Ghadeer is considered most auspicious day in Shia Islam.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Saturday, 27 July 2013

Taraveeh, Haraam/ forbidden in Shia Islam

Topic 26:

A request for non-muslim readers is that this topic won’t concern you much, so you may avoid its reading.

Taraveeh prayers are Haraam/ forbidden in Shia Islam; whereas they are important prayers in Sunni, during the nights of month of Ramadan. Shia consider it Haraam/ forbidden because Prophet Mohammed never ordered nor asked to observe Taraveeh. It started a decade after Prophet Mohammed; Umar Khattab the second Caliph started it during his reign.

Umar Khattab didn’t had any divinely appointed authority over him to start something like Taraveeh, Prophet Mohammed had declared that Islam became complete during his very life time at event of Ghadeer, this completion included completion in prayer system as well. What was missing in complete prayer system of Islam that Umar s/o Khattab started this Biddat (innovation) could not be found out. He himself declares it is a Biddat (innovation) in Sahih Bukhari.

Taraveeh are offered like daily obligatory prayers in congregation (Jama’at), congregational prayers are orders of God through divine revelations like 5 daily prayers. Even if you calculate daily prayers they make up to 17 (2+4+4+3+4) cycles/ rakah in 24 hours, Taraveeh exceed this limit also; a caliph has no right to start such prayers parallel to obligatory prayers that too even more than those. Taraveeh are prayed like obligatory prayers in 20 or 36 cycles/ rakah, some perform 8 cycles/ rakah, followed by 3 cycles/ rakah of Vitr; but to perfrom such prayers in congregation is invalid, since only a divinely appointed person can establish such prayers, Umar Khattab didn’t had this authority.

Another point to be noted in case of Taraveeh is that during 29/30 nights of Ramadan complete Holy Qur’an is recited in Taraveeh, it is said Prophet Mohammed himself used to recite Holy Qur’an that too twice during Ramadan. But during Prophet Mohammed’s lifetime there never came any Ramadan wherein Holy Qur’an was complete, last of revelation were declared during month of Dhul Hajja 60 Hijri and Prophet Mohammed got martyred in 61 Hijri (2nd month) but before Ramadan (9th month) came. So how did he openly recite that others even noted it; that which was not even revealed/ declared during previous Ramadan months prior to 61 Hijri to Muslims?

Holy Qur’an is recited at high speed which is usually beyond understanding; this is done to accommodate the recital quota within time frame say an hour. Some more new versions have come up; complete recital in 10 days, 3 days and even 1 night, which is catching fad to save time. This is what Holy Quran asks Muslims in chapter 75 verse 16: La tuharrik bihi lisaanaka lita’jala bihi (Do not move your tongue with it to make haste with it).

Shia are accused since they hate Uthman s/o Affan the third caliph that they are divinely forbidden to memorise Holy Qur’an, since Uthman s/o Affan is attributed as compiler of Holy Qur’an. Shia do memorise Holy Qur’an and there are a lot of Shia who know whole of Holy Qur’an by heart. Their numbers are few since Shia don’t need to recite as there is no Taraveeh, Shia stress more on understanding Holy Qur’an then doing a rote. Also, Shia believe Holy Qur’an was compiled by Imam Ali, but that’s not the topic here.

Salatul Layl/ Namaz Shab or Tahajjud are voluntary prayers not just during the month of Ramadan but throughout the year, one offers it in night, preferably during the last part of night. Sunni hadith state that during Prophet Mohammed’s time once it happened that when Prophet Mohammed was praying alone in mosque in night people gathered behind him and started to pray behind him, it continued for three days and crowd increased. Prophet Mohammed on fourth day didn’t came out, and later said, “your presence was not hidden from me but I was afraid lest the night prayer should be enjoined on you and you might not be able to carry it on”. Holy Qur’an says accept what Prophet Mohammed gives to you and refrain from what he stops you from.

Even if above hadith is accurate, then too Prophet Mohammed stopped it, this was to be enough as reminder that something which Prophet Mohammed didn’t wanted to be enjoined should not have been established on par with enjoined daily prayers. Voluntary prayers are to remain voluntary so congregation could not be made in them, since it’s an individual matter. Umar s/o Khattab converted these prayers in congregational prayers, without any divinely appointed authority to do so.

Reasons are declared that since Prophet Mohammed was no more present there was no fear that any new revelation could come up to make it obligatory, thus Umar s/o Khattab established it. What kind of belief is this; obligatory prayers are taken as burden that a fear remains in mind that any extra burden could have come. These are statements of those companions and scholars who declared they spend whole nights in prayers, self contradictory statements!

Even if there was no so called fear then too when Islam and its prayer system were already complete and declared as such by Prophet Mohammed himself why Umar s/o Khattab started this biddat (innovation) would be interesting to know. Did Umar s/o Khattab knew about Prophet Mohammad’s saying that: Kullu biddatid dalaala wa kullu dalaalati fin naari jahannam/ every biddat (innovation) is dalaala and every dalaala will lead to hell fire. Here, the word ‘kullu/ every’ is to be noted, so no reason left to distinguish between good and bad biddat.

Follower of different Sunni schools of thought (Madhabs) offer different number of cycles of prayers, some offer 20 cycles of prayers, some 8, while other offers 36 cycles along with recommended 3 of Witr. Whereas if Sunni authentic hadith are checked then Aisha widow of Prophet Mohammed declared that Prophet Mohammed never offered more than 11 cycles of night prayers be it Ramadan or any other month. Those who perform 8 cycles and later 3 making it 11 do so as obligatory congregation, congregation itself is controversy and why Shia forbid it. The clashes between numbers of cycles themselves declare controversy. Some Sunni even offer Tahajjud after Taraveeh, which makes whole thing meaningless in eyes of hadith.

Salatul layl/ Namaze Shab or Tahajjud are 8 cycles of voluntary prayers, which are followed by 3 cycles of recommened Witr (2+1). Prophet Mohammed clearly stated that it was obligatory on him not upon his followers, he did meant something.

Shia pray Salatul Layl/ Namaze Shab or Tahajjud throughout the year during night in following pattern (2+2+2+2) then recommended Salatul Shaf (2) and finally Witr (1), total 11 cycles, it confirms Prophet Mohammed’s manner.

1st Imam Ali Murtada who is also 4th and last rightly guided caliph of Sunni didn’t observed nor asked to offer Taraveeh during his reign from Kufa, Iraq, his capital. If an argument is raised that what if it’s prayed after all it’s a prayer, who should have a problem with it? Then, why can’t Muslims fast on Eid or while on journey? Why do Muslims have to shorten their prayers when they travel? Why can’t menstruating ladies fast or offer salah? The answer is when God set a law it must be obeyed we can’t use our own minds and change the law of God. No Shia ever objects to individual voluntary prayers, the problem is with congregation which is only for obligatory prayers.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Thursday, 18 July 2013

Shia view on status of Umm Khadija tul Kubra

Topic 25:

Khajida tul Kubra was Prophet Mohammed’s first wife. She was richest entrepreneur of her time; she was referred to as ‘Malikatul Arab’ the Queen of Arabia. She used to send business caravans to distant places to do business, in this business she used to hire agents who worked for her as managers.

Prophet Mohammed in his prime youth became an agent (manager) for her caravan, she also sent an assistant to assist Prophet Mohammed in the journey and business. The caravan returned from Syria with manifold profit, the business reports were crystal clear. She inquired about Prophet Mohammed nature and behavior from the assistant she had sent, she received heart touching reports about the conduct of Prophet Mohammed.

Her cousin brother Waraqa son of Naufil advised her to get married soon since she was in prime age of marriage. Shia literature states she was 28 years old. She had never married before. She rejected several proposals. Later she sent marriage proposal to Prophet Mohammed which he accepted; their marriage was solemnized by Prophet Mohammed’s guardian uncle Abu Talib, who read the marriage sermon and exchanged vows as jurist.

Sunni states that she was a two time widow and was forty years old lady. Sunni literature get the birth year of Prophet Mohammed as ‘the year of elephant’ from the famous book ‘Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’ad’, ironically the same book also states Kadija tul Kubra was born three years before ‘the year of elephant’, which proves that she was just three years older to Prophet Mohammed. Shia also state that Khadija tul Kubra was three years older to Prophet Mohammed. When they married Prophet Mohammed was 25 years old while Khadija was 28 years old. Shia deny Sunni claims that she was two time widowed.

She had three sons and one daughter with Prophet Mohammed; sons were Qasim, Tayyeb, Tahir all three sons died in infancy. Their only daughter was Fatima Zahra. Sunni state that she had three other daughters as well. Shia literature states that Khadija’s sister Halaa had died leaving three daughters as orphans, Khadija took them under her care and when she married Prophet Mohammed they came to live with them, their names are Zainab, Ruqaiyya and Kulsum. They began to be called as daughters of Prophet Mohammed just like Zaid son of Harith (Khadija’s slave boy) who they have adopted began to be called as Zaid son of Mohammed.

When Prophet Mohammed declared his prophet-hood, Khadija was the first person to confirm his prophet-hood. She became the first Muslim. Sunni claim that Prophet Mohammed trembled with fear and asked Khadija to cover him in blanket, later Khadija called Waraqa who informed Prophet Mohammed that he was now a prophet and the angel who came to him was Archangel Gabriel (Jibril), Shia deny all such claims. Shia state that Prophet Mohammed was rather eagerly waiting for Archangel Gabriel and he never feared or trembled, nor did Waraqa inform him about his status, he knew his status.

As converts began to enter Islam, who were down trodden and poor, Khadija spent her riches upon their uplifting, and their conditions improved. She always played the role of a true mother for Muslims. All her wealth was spent on improvement of conditions of Muslims. Prophet Mohammed is reported to have said that once God sent Archangel Gabriel to him and asked him to inform Khadija that God had sent His salutations upon her.

So long as she remained alive Prophet Mohammed never married another lady, they spent 28 years together. She also spent the worst three years of social boycott with Prophet Mohammed which Makkan had imposed upon clan of Prophet Mohammed. When she died Prophet Mohammed cried bitterly, in the same year Prophet Mohammed also lost his guardian uncle Abu Talib, Prophet Mohammed in grief stated the whole year as ‘year of sorrow’, it was only after their death that Prophet Mohammed migrated to Madina.

Later, Prophet Mohammed when he married other ladies; he frequently informed them about Khadija, he frequently said that when all called him liar, Khadija alone confirmed him as truthful and when no one helped with a penny Khadija gave all her wealth, he said he loved Khadija like none other. She was buried in famous graveyard of Makka ‘Jannatul Mo’alla’, her tomb was desecrated by Saudi regime in 1925 AD, and all that remain is her grave. She passed away on 10th Ramadan 1 BH. Photos of her tomb before 1925’s Saudi desecration and present remaining graves are to be noted.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Shia view: Prophet Mohammed & Imams’ Unseen Knowledge

Topic 24:

Shia’s concept on knowledge of unseen ‘Ilme Ghaib’ should be first understood before any prejudice. Shia Islam considers Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams (Aimmah) as absolute authorities of God on Earth. Prophet Mohammed is the last prophet and messenger of God, with him the series of 124000 prophets came to an end. No prophet or messenger was to come after him; it thus implies that the Law (Holy Qur’an) which was revealed upon him was also the last canon of God to humans.

Holy Qur’an was to remain the canon of Islam up to the last day; it would thus be also interpreted in different times. There could be correct or misleading interpretations. Who can deny misleading interpretations of Jihad the so called holy war which are root causes of terrorism? It is thus obvious that there must be an interpreting source which provides correct interpretation of Holy Qur’an, this is what exactly the concept of Imamat in Shia Islam is all about. 12 Imams (Aimmah) are source of correct interpretation of Holy Qur’an, their teachings are true message of Holy Qur’an. 12 Imams don’t receive revelation rather are official absolute deputies of Prophet Mohammed up to the resurrection.

Being interpreter of Holy Qur’an requires one to be free from error, else the whole religion and its aspect comes under doubt, since no one knows where the error exactly is, thus the concept of infallibility (Ismat) is not a prestige issue rather is requirement of true religion, this is why God has kept saved all His prophets, finally Prophet Mohammed and later 12 Imams (Aimmah) who are guides free from errors, sins and mistakes.

Knowledge is required for interpretation of Holy Qur’an, thus it is obvious that if Qur’an is all comprehending its interpreters should also possess all knowledge, else interpretation becomes prone to errors and mistakes. In that case religion becomes corrupt and whole motive of God to send down revelations becomes absurd, since Holy Qur’an is last revelation and no new revelation is to come to bring diverted religion back to its core. Thus knowledge of unseen by Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams is also more of a necessity for religion rather that prestige issue.

An example would be a perfect surgeon (all knowing) doing a surgery can’t be said he’s doing right, since he may be manipulating the disease and faking a surgery to make money. Other way round is a layman surgeon (with complete sincerity) treating patient knows accurately that surgery is only option but can’t undertake accurate surgery. In both cases the other thing is missing, thus, complete knowledge and sincerity both are important.

When their knowledge of unseen and infallibility are talked about no one is considering them gods, this is a biased opinion; possibly bought up among minds of many Muslims by self claimed interpreters (Mufassir) of Qur’an on orders of political dynasties of old and current time to suit their motives. These are examples of sources of wrong interpretations of Qur’an and root cause of terrorism as well.

Prophet Mohammed had declared there will be only 12 deputies of him, who would continue up to the last day and Islam would remain perfect under them. His followers for love of money, power and worldly benefits shifted to other sources and result is 73 sects of Islam, this again was prophesized by Prophet Mohammed, who also declared only one sect will remain guided, obviously under genuine guide (True Imam, all knowing and infallible).

Shia are accused of attributing knowledge of unseen to Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams, the accusations bring up various verses of Holy Qur’an which talks about absolute knowledge of God alone, and on such basis called Shia as heretics. This bias is what rather wrong interpretation is all about. Shia are projected as misled on basis of several hadith from Shia books as well. Like, in several hadith 1st Shia Imam Ali Murtada and later Imams claim to have bought knowledge from God Himself, while in other hadith Imam Ali talks about him receiving knowledge from Prophet Mohammed in a manner in which a bird feeds its chick in nest. These are bought to show contradictions within Shia Islam.

There are three branches of knowledge. First is knowledge of all sciences and all languages. Any branch of knowledge from astronomy, biology, mathematics, electronics, geology, history, management, gynaecology, criminology, logic, genealogy, knowledge of all previous revealed books like Tenakh, Psalms, Gospel, various scrolls, other religious scriptures, to any branch of knowledge is included in it. This branch also include complete knowledge of all languages, their grammar, vocabulary, accents, dialects, all knowledge includes all primitive, archaic, modern and future languages till the last day. This knowledge is God gift to Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams. They are not taught into this, they possess it from their births. This knowledge is limited although vast but limited.

The second knowledge is knowledge of all events of past, present and future, this again is God gift to Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams, they are not taught even into this, this too they possess from their births. Prophet Mohammed and 12 Imams all had this knowledge from their birth, they are not taught into this, and no one teaches them into this knowledge. It was for this above knowledge that 1st Imam Ali and other Imams are reported to have said we have bought this knowledge from God. This knowledge is also limited although vast but still limited.

The third knowledge is ‘Maarifat Ilaahi’ that is familiarity with God, the more and more one knows about God, the closer one gets to Him, this knowledge is limitless, it has no limit. Since, God’s identity is beyond the comprehension of any creation, it can never be grasped completely since it has no limit. It is not that yesterday one had incomplete knowledge of identity of God so today one is able to get more knowledge on this, but since this knowledge is limitless; one continues to get more and more knowledge. Suppose if it is said one has complete knowledge of familiarity of God ‘Maarifat Ilaahi’, then God comes within limits which is impossible. It is exactly about this knowledge for which Prophet Mohammed is reported in Qur’an to have prayed: Rabbi Zidni Ilma (Oh Lord! Advance me in Knowledge).

1ST Imam Ali is reported to have said about his licking Prophet Mohammed’s tongue in childhood that Prophet Mohammed gave him knowledge in such a manner as bird feed its chick from beak to beak in its nest. Shia are accused if Imam Ali claimed he bought knowledge from God then what he learnt from Prophet Mohammed and vice versa? It was this knowledge ‘Maarifat Ilaahi’ familiarity with God that Imam Ali talked about he learnt from Prophet Mohammed the knowledge which has no limits. Two previous knowledge talked above was God gift to him and to later Imams.

A particular Sunni sect’s interpreters (Mufassir) of Qur’an translate ‘Rabbi Zidni Ilma’ as: Oh Lord! Give us great (complete) knowledge (all at once), here knowledge is just knowledge not specific definitions just the knowledge of Islam, they claim if they are praying for knowledge why not all at once? This is their folly in Shia opinion since this knowledge is ‘Maarifat Ilaahi’ familiarity with God and is limitless, and could never be complete, this is one more evidence to show how self claimed interpreters (Mufassir) misinterpret Qur’an and bring God under limits of their limited minds. Shia are free from such mentality.

Prophet Mohammed is reported to have said: ‘Inni Taraqam Fikum As Saqalaen Kitaab Ullahi Wa Itrati Ahli Bayti’ I am leaving two weighty things behind me among you, the book of God and my blood relatives. Book and its interpreters the 12 Imams both are required for true religion; Muslims have taken only Qur’an and interpret on their own whims and fancies the result is backward, barbaric and terrorist brand of Islam.

Back to: Prophet Mohammed In Shia Islam

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Wednesday, 10 July 2013

Shia beliefs/ Usul Deen from Holy Qur'an

Topic 23:

In Main topic titled 'Beliefs and Practices in Shia Islam' following is briefed:

Principles/ Beliefs/ Root/ Tenets of Faith (Usul Deen), they are five in number as follow:

1) Tauhid (Absolute Monotheism)
2) Adalat (Concept of Divine Justice)
3) Nubuwat (Prophethood)
4) Imamat (Divinely appointed leadership)
5) Qayamat (Resurrection)

These above beliefs are taken as required beliefs in Shia Islam; simultaneously are sourced directly from Holy Qur'an. In 20th Chapter/ Surah: Taa Haa conversation between God and Prophet Moses (Nabi Musa) is provided.

God calls Prophet Moses and commands him to go to Pharoah with message of God's true religion, the content of message was nothing but what Shia Islam has as fundamental beliefs.

If you read carefully the following verses of Holy Qur'an, chapter 20, Surah Taa Haa, from verse 13 up to 36, you could sum up all Shia beliefs in those verses.

Holy Qur'an, Chapter 20, Surah Taa Haa:

13: And I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed (3rd Belief: Nubuwat/ Prophet hood)
14: Surely I am Allah, there is no god but I (1st Belief: Tauhid/ Absolute Monotheism), therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance
15: Surely the hour is coming-- I am about to make it manifest (5th Belief: Qayamat/ Resurrection]) ........ so that every soul may be rewarded as it strives (2nd Belief: Adalat/ Concept of Divine Justice)

With above commands and assisted miracles God asks Prophet Moses to go to Pharoah, but Prophet Moses is seen feeling a sense of incompleteness, this is exactly where 4th belief Imamat/ Divinely appointed leadership comes up. Prophet Moses asks God to appoint a minister (Wazir) from Prophet Moses' family, who should be Prophet Aaron ( Nabi Haarun), refer following verses.

Holy Qur'an, Chapter 20, Surah Taa Haa:

29: And give to me a minister from my family:
30: Aaron, my brother,
31: Strengthen my back by him,
32: And associate him (with me) in my affair,
33: So that we should glorify Thee much,
34: And remember Thee oft.
35: Surely, Thou art seeing us.
36: He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Moses (4th Belief: Imamat/ Divinely appointed leadership)

When Prophet Moses' petition was granted it was only then that Prophet Moses walked to preach Pharaoh the command of God, this is the importance of divinely appointed leadership.

That is why Prophet Mohammed had clearly stated, "Ali is to Me as Aaron was to Moses; only difference is that both prophethood and messengership had come to the end upon me". Ali was nominated as Prophet Mohammed's deputy, his minister by Prophet Mohammed himself at event of Ghadeer. It was at Ghadeer that Islam was declared a complete religion as per verse 3 of 5th chapter of Holy Qur'an.

Prophet Mohammed had also clearly declared, "After Me there will be twelve leaders of Islam, all will be from Quraish clan, Islam will remain true under them, Ali would be first Mahdi would be last". These above words clearly shows up Shia beliefs, the most required fundamental beliefs or Usul Deen of Shia Islam.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Friday, 14 June 2013

Shia Azaan (Call for Prayers) and Shia Iqaama (Set up for Prayers)

Azaan/ Adhan (Call for Prayers) is recited before Iqaama (Set up for Prayers), they are usually made when time for Salah/ Namaz/ Prayers have set in. Muslim sects differs slightly in their formats, even with compulsion/ weight-age each sentence carry, same happens with different Shia centers, following is conventional Shia Azaan.

Prophet Mohammed ordered Azaan after his migration to Madina, the person who delivers azaan is called 'Muezzin', first Muezzin of Islam was Bilal s/o Ribah who was a faithful companion/ Sahaabi of Prophet Mohammed. After the event of Ghadeer (Announcement of Ali's vice-regency), Salman Persian another faithful companion/ Sahaabi of Prophet Mohammed delivered azaan, this time he is reported to have recited: Ash'hadu anna Aliyyun Wali'allah (I testify Ali is Vicegerent of God). People instantly took objection and Prophet Mohammed himself made them know that this was exactly what he had announced just then.

Shia do not add sentences like, 'Prayer is better than sleep/ Assalaatu khaerum min an naum' in dawn azaan/ prayer's call because they were added by Umar s/o Khattab the second caliph during his reign but he did not had any authority to do so. Umar s/o Khattab is also noted in Shia history to have removed 'Hayya alaa khaeril a'mal/ Hasten towards best activity' for abrupt reasons. Shia also do not have any extra azaan on friday which again was an innovation, this time by Uthman s/o Affan third caliph during his reign.

Conventional Shia Azaan (Call for Prayers):

1 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
2 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
3 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
4 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
5 Ash'hadu an laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(I testify none is deity except God)
6 Ash'hadu an laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(I testify none is deity except God)
7 Ash'hadu anna Mohammadur Rasulallah 
(I testify Mohammed is Messenger of God)
8 Ash'hadu anna Mohammadur Rasulallah 
(I testify Mohammed is Messenger of God)
9 Ash'hadu anna Aliyyun Wali'allah 
(I testify Ali is Vicegerent of God)
10 Ash'hadu anna Aliyyun Hujjatullah 
(I testify Ali is Ambassador of God)
11 Hayya alas salaah 
(Hasten towards prayers)
12 Hayya alas salaah 
(Hasten towards prayers)
13 Hayya alal falaah 
(Hasten towards success)
14 Hayya alal falaah  
(Hasten towards success)
15 Hayya alaa khaeril a'mal 
(Hasten towards best activity)
16 Hayya alaa khaeril a'mal 
(Hasten towards best activity)
17 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
18 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
19 Laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(None is deity except God)
20 Laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(None is deity except God)

Iqaama (Set up for Prayers) is recited just when Salah/ Namaz/ Prayers is about to be started. In Congregational prayers/ Jama'at people continue to sit until the sentence 'Qad iqaamatis salaah/ Stand for Prayers' are said, people then stand to make rows for prayers.

Conventional Shia Iqama (Set up for Prayers)

1 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
2 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
3 Ash'hadu an laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(I testify none is deity except God)
4 Ash'hadu an laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(I testify none is deity except God)
5 Ash'hadu anna Mohammadur Rasulallah 
(I testify Mohammed is Messenger of God)
6 Ash'hadu anna Mohammadur Rasulallah 
(I testify Mohammed is Messenger of God)
7 Ash'hadu anna Aliyyun Wali'allah 
(I testify Ali is Vicegerent of God)
8 Ash'hadu anna Aliyyun Hujjatullah 
(I testify Ali is Ambassador of God)
9 Hayya alas salaah 
(Hasten towards prayers)
10 Hayya alas salaah 
(Hasten towards prayers)
11 Hayya alal falaah 
(Hasten towards success)
12 Hayya alal falaah  
(Hasten towards success)
13 Hayya alaa khaeril a'mal 
(Hasten towards best activity)
14 Hayya alaa khaeril a'mal 
(Hasten towards best activity)
15 Qad iqaamatis salaah 
(Stand for Prayers)
16 Qad iqaamatis salaah 
(Stand for Prayers)
17 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
18 Allahu Akbar 
(God is Greatest)
19 Laa ilaaha ill Allah 
(None is deity except God)

In Salatul Eid/ festival prayers and Salat Janaza/ funeral prayers Azaan and Iqaama are not said, just three times 'Assalaat (the prayers)' are said loudly.

Shia rules also require Azaan to be recited in right ear and Iqaama to be recited in left ear of new born child, when the child is born.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Friday, 26 April 2013

Mut'ah/ Temporary Marriage, legal in both Qur'an and Shia Islam

Mut'ah or Temporary marriage is legal (Halaal) and allowed in both Holy Qur'an [4:24] and Shia Islam. However, Sunni Islam consider it forbidden (Haraam). Shia Islam considers both Nikah (Permanent marriage) and Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) as blessing of God, to save one's self from various sexual sins.

The major difference between Nikah (Permanent marriage) and Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) is that Mut'ah is contracted for a particular period. There is no divorce (Talaaq) in Mut'ah, when the period end the contract of Mut'ah also ends.

All scholars of both Shia and Sunni branches of Islam agree to the fact that Mut'ah was practised during Prophet Mohammed's time, rather Prophet Mohammed himself allowed his companions to contract Mut'ah, specifically while they undertook voyage/ journey. Mut'ah was practised even prior to advent of Prophet Mohammed among Arabs, but their concepts were unregulated and rude.

Islam forbids fornication, adultery and other various sexual sins. On other hand, Islam takes care about carnal desires and thus provide for concept of marriage. Islam requires its followers to refrain from both sexual sins as well as celibacy. Prophet Mohammed declared, "That to marry is my custom and the one who avoids my custom is not from among my followers". Prophet Mohammed is also reported to have declared that marriage should be made so easy that task of fornication/ adultery (Zinaa) should become tiresome in comparison to it. Mut'ah no doubt is easiest marriage.

Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) like Nikah (Permanent marriage) is contracted by 'Aqd/ marriage fomula' along with 'Mehr/Payment made to bride', thus there is no issue left to call it illegal.

Nikah (Pemanent marriage) requires husband to provide wife with food, clothing, housing, medical aid, sexual satisfaction etc. Nikah apart from safeguarding from sexual sins provides base to make family and have babies. Mut'ah (Temporary marriage) aims more towards safeguarding from sexual sins in critical periods where possibility to commit sexual sins become very high, like in: journey, menstruation, postpartum time, health issues, moments when possibility to commit sexual sins become very high and unavoidable. Remember, Prophet Mohammed said, "make marriage so easy that task of fornication/ adultery (Zinaa) should become very tiresome in comparison to it". 

Although, sole aim of Mut'ah is to safeguard one's self from sexual sins; pregnancy from Mut'ah is considered legal in Shia Islam, and just like in Nikah; title of child from Mut'ah also falls upon child’s father.

Since, sole aim of Mut'ah is to safeguard against sexual sins, it has no specified limits for time, and thus Mut'ah could be for little time (as some minutes, hours, days, weeks, months) up to several years. A very long period ie: many years or life-time turns Mut'ah into Nikah.

With regards to other duties of husband like providing food, clothing, housing, medical aid, sexual satisfaction etc to wife like in case of Nikah, Mut'ah also allows the spouses the same, provided those clauses are mentioned in the contract of Mut'ah. Else, Mut'ah don't obligate husband to provide for wives. To be specific, Mut'ah is such a contract where future spouses specify clause by clause each duty/ obligation, where as in Nikah everything is standard. Mutah allows would be spouses provide clauses in contract with regards to: to have sexual relations, abstain from any sexual relations, inherit, not to inherit, provide food, clothing, housing, medical aid etc or not to provide. Thus, Mut'ah is a custom made contract.

Nowadays, Muslims to marry enter in engagement before that; to know each other better, they talk, dine, travel with each other but in opinion of Islam such acts are forbidden (Haraam) and amount to sexual sins. Current trends are no excuse! Thus for Shia Muslims who allow Mut'ah, Mut'ah is a good agent to know each other before marriage when they start their family with Nikah (permanent marriage). No reason to accuse Mut'ah with premarital sex, since Mut'ah allows it to be contracted with terms that no sexual relations would be made between couple.

Mut'ah is perfect solution to enter into the state of Mehram (relative male/ female), since, Islam forbids Muslims to freely intermingle with Non-Mahram (non-Relative), and women are required to maintain Hijab (Cover body in front of unrelated men).

Mut’ah differs itself from Nikaah on several other aspects as well, since its core motives are to safeguard society against sexual sins, simplify marriage to satisfy carnal desires through rightful means and practise chastity. Unlike Nikah, Mut’ah doesn’t have divorce, thus when the term ends the Mut’ah is over. Since, there is no divorce in it; there is also no concept of Halaala (marrying another man after divorce and getting divorce from latter to re-marry previous husband). One more reason for this is that Mut’ah can’t be re-adjusted with new terms and condition while the contract is working. Thus, if the woman marries the same man once again they have just to re-enter a new contract either through Mut’ah or Nikah, there is no condition of Halalaa or Iddat (waiting period before remarriage).

However, in case the spouses don’t want to re-marry each other, and if the woman is about to marry another man, she has to observe iddat (waiting period before re-marriage). The iddat of Mut’ah as stated in one narration of 5th Imam Mohammed Baqir and yet another narration of 8th Imam Ali Reda is 2 months (2 menstrual cycles). However, if the husband dies the waiting period is similar to such case in Nikah, which is 4 months and 10 days (calendar period); this too is contextual from the narration of 5th Imam Mohammed Baqir.

If arguments are raised upon Mut'ah, about lack of family values since it is time bound, then although Nikah (Permanent marriage) is permanent but is never free from possibility of divorce (Talaq). In Mut'ah however, it lacks the process of divorce (Talaq) since it ends with the completion of term/ period. Another accusation raised against Mut'ah is that spouses don't inherit from each other; thus it amount to prostitution. Mut'ah allows spouses to inherit from each other provided that they have made it a clause in the contract, thus to accuse Mut'ah as prostitution is a blatant lie. One reason why Mut’ah is not prostitution is because Mut’ah could not be done with prostitutes, and woman needs to observe iddat to marry another person. Mut’ah could not be done with un-marriageable person (sister, brother etc). Mut’ah could be done with either Muslim or Ahlul Kitab (Christian and Jews) in case of men, and only with Muslims in case of women. Men can have any number of Mut’ah in addition to maximum four Nikah wives, provided each and every contract is respected, where as women can have just one husband at a time just like in Nikah.

A society which practises Mut'ah, in that society fornication, adultery, prostitution and various other 'Zinaa' along with other sexual crimes find them difficult to survive. In that society, people are not sexually starved, rather sexually satisfied, and acquire high level Islamic chastity. Prophet Mohammed asked his followers to keep marriage easy in comparison to fornication/ adultery (Zinaa). Those who forbade Mut'ah on themselves have done nothing but opened the doors of Zinaa on themselves.

All Shia and Sunni agree to the fact that Mut'ah was legal, but Sunni now consider Mut'ah forbidden (Haraam) on basis of several hadith (Prophet's narration) from Sahih Bukhari, that Mut'ah became forbidden (Haraam) during siege of Khaybar. Shia consider Sahih Bukhari as unreliable book. Verse of Qur'an could not be negated by a hadith which involve several people in chain of narration. Moreover, other hadith nullifies the claim of the above hadith.

The person who forbade (Haraam) Mut’ah out of no valid reason and having no authority to do so was Umar s/o Khattab the second caliph. Umar Khattab forbade both Mut’ah marriage and also Mut’ah of Hajj (Hajj Ta’Mattu) that is break between Umra (lesser pilgrimage) and Hajj (greater pilgrimage), forbidding any is inconvenience. Umar Khattab’s famous sermon is recorded in Sunni Hadith book ‘Musnad Ahmed ibn Hanbal’; he declared that if he found anybody doing any of the two things, he would severely punish that person. 1st Shia Imam Ali son of Abu Talib when he became fourth caliph; he reversed the order of Umar, and thus once again it became legal for those who considered it forbidden on orders of Umar.

Sunni Imam Abu Hanifa who was also student of 6th Shia Imam Ja’far Sadiq once asked Imam Ja’far Sadiq that: isn’t Mut’ah forbidden (Haraam)? Imam Ja’far Sadiq replied by asking whether he (Abu Hanifa) hadn’t read 24th verse of Surah Nisa’a, which allowed Mut’ah? Imam Ja’far asked him: O Abu Hanifa which sin is greater Murder of Adultery? Abu Hanifa replied: Murder! Imam Ja’far re-questioned him: then why does Murder require two eye witnesses to convict the accused while Adultery requires four eye witnesses to convict the accused? When Abu Hanifa remained silent, Imam Ja’far Sadiq informed him that God allowed Mut’ah to save people from sexual sins, but God knew; people will put barriers to the command of God, and a lot of accused would be made guilty of adultery. Thus, out of mercy He put the condition of four eye witnesses to convict the person accused of adultery, who would definitely be difficult to produce! Imam Ja’far Sadiq in another narration from Hadith book ‘Wasail ush Shia’ asks faithful men and women to do Mut’ah at least once in life time.

Following Ayat (verse) of Holy Qur'an legalise Mut'ah (Temporary marriage): Holy Qur'an, Surah Nisaa (Chapter 4), Ayat (Verse 24)

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُم 
وَأُحِلَّ لَكُمْ مَا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَنْ تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ مُحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا  

Translation: And married women except prisoners of war are forbidden for you by God, and legalized for you are beyond those, that you seek with your wealth for marriage and not immorality, so do temporary marriage (Mut'ah) with them, give them payment as obligated, and no blame is on you that you agree upon after the obligation, for sure God is Knowing and Wise.

The word Mut'ah has although several meanings but when it is used in context of marriage it means temporary marriage whose aim is to receive pleasure through legal means and avoid sexual sins. 'M-T' the root letters imply pleasure; Mut'ah and Istamta both signify temporary marriage in this context.

Wa/وَ (and) almuhsanaatu/الْمُحْصَنَاتُ (the secured, ie: already married) min/مِنَ (among) an-nisaa'i/النِّسَاءِ (women) illa/إِلَّا (except) maa/مَا (from) malakat/مَلَكَتْ (acquire) aemanukum/أَيْمَانُكُمْ (on right), kitaab/كِتَابَ (book) Allahi/اللَّهِ (of God) alaykum/عَلَيْكُم (on you) wa/وَ (and) uhilla/أُحِلَّ (legal) lakum/ لَكُمْ (on you) maa/مَا (from) wa/وَ (and) raa'a/رَاءَ (beyond) zalikum/ذَٰلِكُمْ (those) an/أَنْ (that) tabtaghu/تَبْتَغُوا (you seek) biamwaalikum/بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ (with your wealth) muhsinina/مُحْصِنِينَ (secure, ie: marry), ghaira/غَيْرَ (not) musafihina/مُسَافِحِينَ (immorality), fam/فَمَا (so) astamta'tum/اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ (do mut'ah/ temporary marriage) bihi/بِهِ (from) minhunna/مِنْهُنَّ (them) faatu/فَآتُو (you give) hunna/هُنَّ (them) ujura/أُجُورَ (payment) hunna/هُنَّ (them) faridah/فَرِيضَةً (obligation), wa/وَ (and) laa/لَا  (no) junaaha/جُنَاحَ (blame) alaykum/عَلَيْكُمْ (on you) fimaa/فِيمَا (with) taraadaetum/تَرَاضَيْتُمْ (you agree) bihi/بِهِ (by) min/مِنْ (from) ba'd/بَعْدِ (after) ilfaridah/الْفَرِيضَةِ (obligation), inn/إِنَّ (sure) Allaha/اللَّهَ (God) kaana/كَانَ (is) Aliman/عَلِيمًا (Knowing) Hakimaa/حَكِيمًا (Wise).

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Saturday, 13 April 2013

Martyrdom of Fatima Zahra; Prophet’s daughter!

Prophet Mohammed’s daughter Fatima Zahra was murdered in just ninety days after Prophet Mohammed was martyred with slow poison. Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Prophet Mohammed was in her prime youth when hardship befell her. She was mercilessly assaulted, her ribs got fractured; she miscarried her baby boy ‘Mohsin’.

Prophet Mohammed had already prophesied to Fatima Zahra that she would meet him as earliest, once he leaves this world. The prophecy came true Prophet Mohammed secluded from this world on 28th Safar 11 AH due to slow poison and just ninety days later on 3rd Jamad Al Aakhir 11 AH his beloved and only daughter was mercilessly assaulted causing her grievous injuries, fracturing her ribs and miscarriage of her baby boy ‘Mohsin’, which led to her martyrdom.

After Prophet Mohammed, his cousin and son in law’s right as declared by him at event of Ghadeer as his legal heir were nullified, and Abu Bakr was made first caliph at a private meeting at Saqifa. Numerous pious companions of Prophet Mohammed; namely, Salman, Abu Darr, Bilal, Miqdaad, Huzaifa, Ammar, Abu Ayyub, Jabir etc staunchly opposed the selection of Abu Bakr and supported Ali’s claim. Some others like Zubair and Abu Sufyan were also seen supporting Ali’s claim to caliphate.

Ali himself declared that caliphate was his legal right and was bestowed on him by none other than Prophet Mohammed himself at event of Ghadeer. Family members of Prophet Mohammed and whole Clan of Hashmite including Abbas, Abdullah etc opposed the Abu Bakr’s selection. Fatima Zahra, daughter of Prophet Mohammed, rarely seen interfering in social matter openly and staunchly opposed Abu Bakr’s selection, she supported the claim of her husband ‘Ali’, as per orders of her father Prophet Mohammed.

Also, when Abu Bakr became caliph he ordered date gardens of Khaybar and Fidak to be snatched away from Fatima Zahra, citing a reason that he had heard from Prophet Mohammed that prophets don’t leave legacy, all they leave is charity. Fatima Zahra along with her husband Ali demanded the return of Fidak and Khaybar’s property back to her, as Prophet Mohammed himself had given it to her as a gift during Prophet Mohammed’s very own lifetime. Ali himself rejected the hearsay of Abu Bakr by citing the verses of Holy Qur’an which itself declared that both Prophet Zakaria and Prophet Dawood (David) had left legacy after them for their heirs. Abu Bakr on advices of Umar Khattab remained adamant and rejected the demand.

Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger and displeasure for Abu Bakr due to his snatching away of her legal property. Fatima Zahra also reminded the famous declaration of Prophet Mohammed, “he who angers Fatima does actually angers me”. Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger on Abu Bakr in front of numerous people, she also declared she will remain angry and displeased with Abu Bakr till her very last moment.

As Ali’s claim to caliphate along with impetus from event of Fidak and Khaybar gardens were gathering momentum Abu Bakr’s coup feared civil war. Thus, to consolidate their position they sent embassies of various people to Ali’s house to acquire allegiance in their favour from him. Ali rejected all those embassies. Ali’s supporters (later known as Shia) were having a meet at Ali’s house, when Abu Bakr’s men arrived they claimed Ali’s house as centre point of possible rivalry, they warned against any such gatherings.

Gathering continued, Abu Bakr’s council feared their rule would face serious problems if the events continued in Ali’s house. Their men gathered at Ali’s house with torches in their hands and demanded either Ali’s allegiance in their favour or his arrest. Umar Khattab, Khalid bin Walid, Umar’s slave: Qunfud and some others were reported to be present. Fatima Zahra denied permission to enter her house and also asked them to leave instantly. Hot argument between Fatima Zahra and them were exchanged, she was warned about dire consequences of putting her house on fire.

As events climaxed her door was finally put on fire, and was pushed so forcefully that Fatima got serious injuries as she was just behind
the door. Her ribs were fractured; she was grievously injured and miscarried her baby boy ‘Mohsin’. She later succumbed to her injuries and passed away on 3rd Jamad Al Akhir 11 AH just ninety day after Prophet Mohammed, hers was age of prime youth.

In her will to Ali, she asked him for her secret burial. She also asked none of those who injured and angered her be allowed to take part in funeral, her funeral be undertaken at night. Ali compiled with her wishes. Only few selected men namely, Salman, Abu Darr etc along with her sons Hasan and Husain took part in funeral. Several dummy graves were also made to keep her grave as secret as possible.

Her grave lies in graveyard of Jannatul Baqi in Madina. Her orphans included Hasan, Husain, Zainab and Umm Kulthum, grand-childrens of Prophet Mohammed, who were later assaulted and mercilessly murdered in event of Karbala after fifty years. The saddest part is that these criminals were so called muslims, actually hypocrites!

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

Friday, 5 April 2013

Twelve Imam (Aimmah) of Shia Islam

Belief in Twelve Imam (Aimmah) forms a part of Principles/ Beliefs/ Root/ Tenets of Faith ( Usul Deen). Prophet Mohammed had declared that there will follow a series of twelve vice-regent of his, they would be official spokespersons of Islam. Final authority of Islam on Earth. Their span would continue up to the day of Resurrection, and Islam will remain pure under their guidance. They would be caliphs of God on Earth, only they would interpret the canon of Islam; and the Holy Qur'an. All Twelve Imams are immaculate and infallible, thus their can be no possibility for errors in Islamic interpretation and Islam will remain uncontaminated from errors.

Prophet Mohammed had clearly announced that he is leaving two weighty things (Saqalain) as his legacy; the Holy Qur'an and his blood relatives (Itrat), if people remain bonded with them, people will never go astray. Prophet Mohammed had clearly announced Ali s/o Abu Talib, his cousin and son in law as his first legal heir to lead Islam at event of Ghadeer, just after which Islam was declared a complete religion.

Shia, thus take Ali son of Abu talib as first Imam, and the series goes up to twelfth Imam, which is as follow:

1st Imam Ali Murtada 
Son of Prophet's uncle Abu Talib, Imam Ali is Prophet Mohammed's cousin brother as well as his son in law

2nd Imam Hasan Mujtaba 

Son of First Imam Ali, Eldest Grandson of Prophet Mohammed through his daughter Fatima Zahra

3rd Imam Husain Shaheed 

Son of First Imam Ali, Younger Grandson of Prophet Mohammed through his daughter Fatima Zahra, Younger Brother of Second Imam Hasan Mujataba

4th Imam Ali Sajjad, Zainul Aabideen 

Son of Third Imam Husain Shaheed

5th Imam Mohammed Baaqir 

Son of Fourth Imam Ali Sajjad, Zainul Aabideen

6th Imam Ja'far Saadiq 

Son of Fifth Imam Mohammed Baaqir

7th Imam Musa Kaazim 

Son of Sixth Imam Ja'far Saadiq

8th Imam Ali Reda 

Son of Seventh Imam Musa Kaazim

9th Imam Mohammed Jawwad, Taqi 

Son of Eighth Imam Ali Reda

10th Imam Ali Haadi, Naqi 

Son of Ninth Imam Mohammed Jawwaad, Taqi

11th Imam Hasan Askari 

Son of Tenth Imam Ali Haadi, Naqi

12th Imam Mohammed Mahdi 

The Last Imam, son of Eleventh Imam Hasan Askari, he continues to live in state of metaphysical existence since his Occultation (Ghaybah), will Reappear (Zahoor) by command of God, before Resurrection along with Jesus Christ. He will establish Peace, Justice, Law and True Islamic Order.

Oh Allah! Peace and Salutation be upon Mohammed and House-hold of Mohammed.

People dissociated in Shia Islam

1) Umar son of Khattab

  1. Prevented Prophet Mohammed from writing his will in last hours.
  2. Usurped Imam Ali's (Prophet's cousin) right for caliphate, made Abu Bakr 1st Caliph.
  3. Assaulted Fatima Zahra (Prophet's daughter), she later miscarried her baby and passed away.
  4. Forbade legal rulings in Islam, also, innovated illegal rulings in Islam.
  5. Ran away from battle of Uhad and Hunain.
  6. Had questioned prophet-hood of Prophet Mohammed at event of Hudaibiyah truce.

2) Abu Bakr son of Abu Quhafa

  1. Usurped Imam Ali's (Prophet's cousin) right for caliphate, became 1st Caliph.
  2. Snatched Fatima Zahra's (Prophet's daughter) properties of Fidak and Khaybar gardens, citing lame excuses. Fatima Zahra openly declared her anger with Abu Bakr.
  3. Wrote a will and declared Umar s/o Khattab to be next caliph, without any authority to do so, remember Prophet Mohammed himself was prevented to write a will.

3) Uthman son of Affaan

  1. Had ran away from Uhad battle, defying Prophet Mohammed's clear orders.
  2. Was named in committee to propose next caliph by Umar s/o Khattab, agreed to terms and conditions to become caliph by other members, terms and conditions had no Qur'anic sanctions, thus, Imam Ali had denied the terms.
  3. Cancelled the orders of Prophet Mohammed for life extermination from Madina for Marwan s/o Hakam (Uthman's son in law) and his father, allowed both of them re-entry in Madina.
  4. Exterminated Abu Darr Ghiffari, a loyal companion (Sahabi) of Prophet Mohammed from Madina, he died due to starvation in nearby desert of Rabada.
  5. Made Ommayyads (his family clan) chiefs, governors, and jurists, turned political power into their family monopoly.

4) Aisha, widow of Prophet Mohammed, daughter of Abu Bakr

  1. Received warnings for divorce from Prophet Mohammed in Quran (Surah Tahrim).
  2. Neglected the Quranic orders to live seclusive life by undertaking pilgrimage to Makka after Prophet Mohammed.
  3. Declared open war on Imam Ali's caliphate and accused him of Uthman's murder.
  4. She herself went at battle-field in Basra, Iraq, fought battle of Jamal and lost the battle, however, she was freely sent back to Madina by Imam Ali.

5) Hafsa, widow of Prophet Mohammed, daughter of Umar

  1. Received warnings for divorce from Prophet Mohammed in Quran (Surah Tahrim).

6) Abu Sufyan son of Harb

  1. Staunchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed before converting to Islam, yet his actions remained hypocritic.
  2. Himself being Ommayyad leader, played important role in power monopoly during Uthman's reign.

7) Hinda wife of Abu Sufyan, daughter of Utba

  1. Stanchest enemy of Prophet Mohammed prior to her conversion, Prophet Mohammed ordered her never to come in front of him; even after her conversion.
  2. She was the one who had cannibalised Hamza (Prophet's uncle) during Uhad battle, she had slit open and chewed liver of Hamza.

8) Mauwiya, son of Abu Sufyan and Hinda, father of Yazid

  1. Had converted to Islam only after Abu Sufyan's pressure, but remained hypocritic.
  2. Accused Imam Ali of murder of Uthman (his cousin, 3rd caliph)
  3. Rejected the decision to make Imam Ali as 4th Caliph, broke away from main stream Islam.
  4. Declared war on Imam Ali and Imam Ali's caliphate, fought battles with him, ie. Siffin.
  5. Murdered numerous Companions (Sahaba) of Prophet Mohammed, namely: Ammar s/o Yasir, Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr (Imam Ali's adopted son).
  6. Murdered 2nd Imam Hasan (Prophet's grandson) after truce through Imam Hasan's wife.
  7. Broke truce by nominating his son Yazid as next caliph, turned Islamic political power into Ommayyad dynasty.
  8. Desecrated the grave of Hamza (Prophet's uncle) in Uhad, citing  reasons of irrigation.
  9. Initiated the custom of public cursing of Imam Ali, even from pulpit of mosque during Friday sermons, the cursing was stopped later by Umar (another) s/o Abdullah during his caliphate after many years.

9) Abdur Rehman son of Auf

  1. Had been member of committee to propose next caliph as declared in illegal will of Umar.
  2. Put terms and conditions on Imam Ali that if they made him 3rd caliph; he will work under their pleasure and would take their opinions in all matters, Imam Ali denied those terms.
  3. Later, put those terms and conditions to Uthman, he agreed and was made 3rd caliph, they made Islam as their monopoly, which resulted in riots, and later murder of Uthman.

10) Abu Musa Ash'ari

  1. During truce offered by Mauwiya to Imam Ali after battle of Siffin, he was sent as arbitrator from Imam Ali's side.
  2. Imam Ali himself never appointed him as his arbitrator, Imam Ali recomended either Abdullah s/o Abbas (Prophet's another cousin) or Malik Ashtar, both were rejected by public.
  3. When Imam Ali found opposition for his choice, he isolated himself from the matter, and Abu Musa Ash'ari was sent as his arbitrator without his consent.
  4. Beguiled by Amr s/o A'as, he openly rejected the authority of Imam Ali on caliphate, and gave baseless declaration that he impeached Imam Ali from caliphate.

11) Talha son of Obaidullah

  1. Had been member of committee to chose 3rd caliph in illegal will of Umar s/o Khattab, tried his best to prevent Imam Ali to be taken as first priority by committee.
  2. Later, accused Imam Ali for murder of Uthman.
  3. Declared open war on Imam Ali, fought battle of Jamal, Basra, Iraq along with Aisha (Prophet's widow).
  4. Sensing defeat tried to ran away from battle field but was killed by Marwan s/o Hakam his own ally, while running.

12) Abu Obaidah son of Jarraah

  1. Abu Obaidah was at Saqifa council when Abu Bakr was chosen as first caliph, he insisted that he be made 1st Caliph, but lost the election to Abu Bakr.

13) Mughaira son of Shu'ba

  1. He practiced open opposition for Imam Ali during reign of Uthman.
  2. He circulated illogical Hadiths (Narrations like Peeing while standing, purchasing onion to get Paradise etc).

14) Abu Huraira

  1. His status is similar to Mughaira, he too circulated illogical hadith (narrations about Prophet Moses' nudity etc)
  2. Took active side of Mauwiya, since he was poor and Mauwiya funded him as and when the latter desired.

15) Anas son of Malik

  1. Openly opposed Imam Ali
  2. Circulated Hadith (narrations) which nullified position of Family members of Prophet Mohammed and Imam Ali in particular.

16) Wahshi son of Harb

  1. Henchmen of Hinda and Abu Sufyan, to kill Hamza (Prophet's uncle).

17) Amr son of Aa's

  1. Worst politician, played barbaric politics for Mauwiya
  2. Person behind the idea to tie Qur'an on spear to stop army of Imam Ali from marching ahead, resulted in blasphemy and riots.
  3. Chief ally of Mauwiya during his war against Imam Ali.
  4. Main co-accused behind murder of prominent companions (Sahaba) like: Mohammed s/o Abu Bakr (Imam Ali's adopted son) and Malik Ashtar in Egypt.

18) Khalid son of Walid

  1. Murdered a companion (Sahaba) Malik s/o Nuwaira in Najd area when latter denied his vote in favour of Abu Bakr as 1st Caliph. Malik s/o Nuwaira was made governor of Najd by Prophet Mohammed himself.
  2. Raped Malik's s/o Nuwaira wife 'Laila', after her husband's murder.
  3. Member of the gang that assaulted the house of Imam Ali and in which Fatima Zahra the daughter of Prophet Mohammed was brutally wounded, miscarried her baby and later got martyred

19) Abdullah son of Umar
  1. Son of 2nd Caliph Umar, declared his isolation from politics yet gave unconditional allegiance to Yazid's governor in favour of Yazid.

20) Marwaan son of Hakam

  1. Son in law of 3rd Caliph Uthman, Marwan was exterminated by Prophet Mohammed himself from Madina for lifetime.
  2. He mocked Prophet Mohammed on several occasions.
  3. Uthman, when he became 3rd caliph cancelled the orders of Prophet Mohammed and allowed him re-entry in Madina
  4. Had been chief ally of Uthman during Uthman's reign.
  5. Accused Imam Ali for murder of Uthman.
  6. Declared open war on Imam Ali.
  7. Remained chief enemy of Prophet's family.
  8. After Yazid's death declared himself caliph, and started Marwanide branch of Ommayad caliphate.

21) Hakam son of Waail

  1. Father of Marwan, he too was exterminated for lifetime from Madina by Prophet Mohammed himself.
  2. Uthman his son's father in law allowed him re-entry in Madina, cancelling orders of Prophet Mohammed, when Uthman became 3rd caliph.

22) Yazid son of Mauwiya

  1. Chief person behind the tragedy of Karbala, wherein, Grandson of Prophet Mohammed 'Husain' was mercilessly martyred along with 71 other men of 3rd Imam Husain, including a six month baby of Imam Husain.
  2. Practiced worst form of cruelty during his reign.
  3. Had sent an army to attack holy cities of Makka and Madina, Ka'ba ( House of Allah) was attacked with catapult, both sanctuaries (Haramain) were desecrated.
  4. Imprisoned Granddaughters of Prophet Mohammed along with other women and children, after arresting them when Imam Husain and his men were martyred in Karbala.
  5. Declared openly that Islam was a folly, and rejoiced that he had taken revenge for loss of his forefathers at hand of Prophet Mohammed in battle of Badr.

23) Yazid son of Abu Sufyan

  1. Was nominated was governor of Syria by Umar s/o Khattab, but he died and he was replaced by Mauwiya his brother by Umar the 2nd Caliph.

24) Ziyad son of Abu Sufyan

  1. Chief member of Ommayyad power monopoly, enemy of clan of Prophet Mohammed.

25) Obaidullah son of Ziyad (Ibn Marjaana)

  1. Son of Ziyad and cousin of Yazid, he was appointed governor of Kufa by Yazid with command to deal with Husain (Prophet's grandson).
  2. Ordered the killing of 'Muslim s/o Aqeel' cousin of 3rd Imam Husain.
  3. Murdered numerous companions (Sahaba) in Kufa during his reign of terror.
  4. Haani s/o Urwa, Muslim s/o Aqeel, Meesam Teemar were murdered as they were chief supporters of 3rd Imam Husain. Haani was shot with spears, Muslim was thrown from castle tower and Meesam was crucified.
  5. He undertook the command of Battle of Karbala.
  6. It was he who imprisoned Granddaughters of Prophet Mohammed along with other ladies, assaulted them, and later sent them to Yazid in Damascus as prisoners.

26) Ka'ab Al Ahbar

  1. Imam Ali declared him a hypocrite and a liar, he had converted to Islam to acquire power.
  2. Umar s/o Khattab 2nd Caliph made him his chief adviser.
  3. After Umar's death he went and served at court of Mauwiya

27) Umar son of Sa'ad

  1. Commander of the army which mercilessly slaughtered the family members of Prophet Mohammed, in Karbala.
  2. Committed worst atrocities on 3rd Imam Husain's (Prophet's grandson) camp.
  3. Declared that he is the first person to fire the first shot at Husain's camp and thus officially starting the battle of Karbala.

28) Walid son of Uqba

  1. Step brother of 3rd Caliph Uthman, who nominated him as his governor to Kufa.
  2. Openly, practised drinking, and thereby altered prayers, was later called back by Uthman.
  3. Thereafter, served at court of Mauwiya.

These two following persons proved different from other open enemies of Imam Ali:

1) Zubair son of Awwam

He was a staunch supporter of Imam Ali and objected Abu Bakr as first Caliph but later changed sides after Umar Khattab on his deathbed formed the committee for next caliph, Zubair too had his name in the committee. Later fought with Imam Ali, but showed remorse right amidst battle, left the battle, but was killed by his former ally Talha s/o Obaidullah. 

2) Sa'ad son of Abu Waqqas

Umar Khattab had named him too in the committee for next caliph. Didn't paid allegiance to Imam Ali as 4th Caliph, but openly rejected Mauwiya's proposal with regards to cursing Imam Ali or waging war on him. Neither favoured nor opposed Imam Ali, but remained isolated.