Monday, 10 December 2012

Prophet's role in Madina, and capture of Makka

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Prophet Mohammed migrated from Makka to Madina, before entering into Madina, Prophet encamped at Quba, it's suburb. Prophet stayed there for few days and erected Mosque of Quba, this was to become the first mosque of Islam. Prophet himself performed labour job in construction of Quba Mosque and laid bricks and performed other manual construction works.

Few days later, Prophet entered Madina. Till then Madina was known by it's older name: Yasrib (City of disease). Madina had Jewish majority. Aus and Khazraj were chief tribes of Madina and had deep enmity. Madina, was on verge of devastation due to civil war among tribes. Prophet was actually invited for that very purpose; to solve problems of Madina.

With Prophet taking care of Madina, it began to be referred to as Madina tun Nabi (City of Prophet), shortly as Madina (City). Prophet Mohammed drafted the Constitution of Madina which was agreeable to all. The Constitution of Madina guaranteed freedom of religion to Muslims, Jews, Christians and others. It guaranteed various other human and civil rights to people. It had various military provision to consolidate Madina. Situation of Madina improved and Prophet became popular and chief of Madina.

Prophet Mohammed initiated brotherhood among migrated Makkan (Muhajirs) and Madinites (Ansaars/ Helpers). People were asked to choose a brother from each other and treat them as real brother, ties between them improved and Madina became a prototype of Islamic society. Difference between Aus and Khazraj also wiped away.

Friction between some Jews and Muslims were routine. There were confusions about Muslims as to whether they were Jewish sect or Makkan neo-pagan. Prophet erected Mosque of Madina by purchasing the plot, himself performed manual labour in it's construction. Epi-centre of prayers (Qibla) was changed on order of God from Jerusalem to Makka, these established Islam as independent and separate from both Jews and pagans.

Makkans, looted the remant properties of Muslims, Ommayyads were in forefront, later waged war on Prophet. Badr was fought, Muslims had 313 men while Makkan bought 1000 men, Muslims won the battle. Ommayyads lost their warlords like Utba (Yazid's maternal grandfather), Walid (Utba's son), and others. Another chief by same name Ommayya, Abu Jahal etc were also killed, this enraged Makkans. Prophet gave prisoner of war status and facilities to captured Makkans.

Enraged by loss of Badr, Abu Sufyan (Yazid's paternal grandfather) and his wife Hinda (Utba's daughter) swore to avenge the loss, they declared attack on Prophet, this time at Ohad with 5000 men, Muslims had 1000 men. Prophet ordered Uthman (future third calpih) who was also an Ommayyad but a Muslim now as a guard to prevent possible back attack. Prophet's order were precise and detailed. Muslim initially won the battle.

However, Uthman and his band left the post and began to loot spoils, Khalid son of Walid attacked from back on Muslims to cause trauma. Prophet himself was wounded, Umar son of Khattab (future 2nd caliph) ran away from battlefield.

Hamza Prophet's uncle was shot with a spear, Hinda slit open body of Hamza canibalised him (chewed liver) as revenge for her father. Abu Sufyan praised idols of Makka, and declared Ohad was revenge of Badr. 

Muslim martyrs were mutilated, their noses, eye lashes, ears, fingers and other body parts were cut off, Prophet grievously wept on Hamza and other Muslims. Uthman, and Umar later showed remorse on their fleet.

Abu Sufyan once again ordered attack on Prophet this time right in the city of Madina. Prophet as precaution had ordered a trench to be dug outside Madina, Makkan encamped outside Madina to find solution for breakthrough, however storm caused a failure for them and they went back.

Prophet Mohammed was now chief political power in whole Arabia. Prophet intended to visit Makka to perform pilgrimage with little band. Abu Sufyan and other Makkans vowed not to allow him entry. However, a truce was made between them, that Muslim prisoners would not be returned and Makkan prisoners must be returned, and following year Muslim could perform pilgrimage. Prophet agreed on one sided truce. Clans were free to join either sides, and truce was to be for ten years. Umar son of Khattab (future 2nd caliph) cast doubt on Prophet and had argument with him as well.

A particular Jewish clan waged war on Muslims, they made pact with Makkans as well. Khaybar their centre was attacked. Khaybar was captured because of heroic bravery of Ali son of Abu Talib. During truce, Prophet's missionary activities were at zenith and Arabia was getting converted into Islam. This was time when most of Arabia became Muslim.

Prophet knew Makkans and was sure they would break the treaty in between. Makkans did exactly that and attacked a clan on Muslim side. Now, Prophet had enough reason to attack Makka for capture. Prophet however put three conditions either to break bond with that clan, compensate Muslims or end the truce, Makkans chose the third.

Prophet marched with 10000 men upon Makka, Abu Sufyan as it's chief was sure they can't resist him this time thus avoided any defense. Prophet entered Makka and granted general amnesty to every Makkan. Abu Sufyan and his colleagues lost all prestige and found themselves powerless. On such occassion Abu Sufyan as best option available chose to enter Islam, he convinced his son Mauwiya (Yazid's father), his wife Hinda and other Ommayyads to do the same. They entered Islam as hypocrites.

Ommayad activities were always evident enough that they never practised Islam by heart. When later they acquired power they crossed all boundaries of humanity in oppressing Hashmites and altering Islam. Had Husain's sacrifice not been there, there was to be no difference between true Islam and Ommayyad's terrorist pseudo islam. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview

1 comment:

  1. Great information and i love to read about Islamic topics. This is one of my favorite topic.
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