Wednesday, 5 December 2012

Rivalry of Ommayyads v/s Hashmites and Karbala

Main topic: Karbala, brief overview

Battle of Karbala was one battle in the age old war between Ommayyads and Hashmite clans. Even before Prophet Mohammed was born Ommayyads practised rivalry with Hashmites.

Makkan society was based on clans. Two prominent clans were Banu Hashim (Hashmite) and Banu Ommayya (Ommayyad). Makka was spiritual capital of Arabs.

Both political and spiritual leadership belonged to Hashmite. Prophet Mohammed was Hashmite by birth, when Prophet Mohammed declared Islam, Ommayyads who were already rival of Hashmite percieved Islam as another blow on their status and turned into most hostile enemies of Islam.

Hashmites and Ommayyads are named after Hashim and Ommayya respectively. Hashim was son of Abd Munaf. Hashim was also father of Abdul Mutallib, who was grandfather of Prophet Mohammed. Ommayya was adopted son of Abd Munaf. Legacy of Abd Munaf went to Hashim and became cause of rivalry.

On the eve of Prophet's birth Hashmite chief was Abdul Mutallib, Prophet's grandfather. Ommayyads oppossed Abdul Mutallib on various occassions but were unsuccessful. Abdullah father of Prophet Mohammed died before his birth so he came under care of grandfather.

After Abdul Mutallib's death, uncle of Prophet, Abu Talib father of Ali took Prophet under his care, Abu Talib also became chief of Hashmite. On Ommayyad side Utba grandson of Ommayya and his nephew and son in law Abu Sufyan (grandfather of Yazid) were Ommayyad chiefs.

When Prophet Mohammed declared Islam, Banu Ommayya turned into enemies of Islam. 
Prophet had influence of Abu Talib to protect him, till the time Abu Talib was alive Prophet's life was safe. 

Ommayyads however convinced few other clans and issued a social boycott against Hashimite. Hashmites were forced to starve or survive merely on Acacia barks, little bit business were secretely conducted by friendly clans. 

Finally, few Makkan leader sympathatic with Hashmite forced to ammend the provisions of document to give some relief to starving Hashmites. When document was taken out it eaten by termites, they took it as symbol of Divine cancellation. Boycott was ended. However these were worst periods for Hashmite and few days later Abu Talib passed away. Now, Prophet had no protection. 

Prophet had ordered those Muslims who could afford to settle in Ethiopia, of hatred Abu Sufyan sent Amr (Ommayyad) son of Aas to Ethiopian Emperor Negus to convince him not to allow Muslims to settle there. He listened to both sides, from Muslim side Ja'far (Prophet's cousin) son of Abu Talib gave clarifications, Negus finally allowed Muslims to settle in his country.

Various Ommayyads, Abu Sufyan (grandfather of Yazid) among them plotted to kill Prophet. Prophet migrated to Madina, as Madinites had invited him to settle in Madina. Prophet asked Ali (Abu Talib's) to lay asleep on his bed to disguise Ommayyads and started his journey. When Ommayyad couldn't find Prophet, Abu Sufyan put a bounty of 100 camels on Prophet (alive or head in case of dead).

After migration in period of few month Ommayyads began to loot Hashmite properties. Later, Ommayyads with other Makkan clans declared war on Prophet. Battle of Badr was fought. Ommayyads lost their chief leaders. Walid brother in law of Abu Sufyan was killed by Ali, Utba father in law of Abu Sufyan was killed by Hamza uncle of Prophet.

Ommayyads swore to avenge the loss at Badr, they gathered other clans of Makka and declared another war on Prophet, both armies met at Ohad. Abu Sufyan was commander of Makkans. Khalid son of Walid who was killed at Badr by Ali attacked Muslims from back side to cause trauma. Prophet Mohammed was fatally wounded. Hamza, Prophet's uncle was martyred. 

Hinda (grandmother of Yazid) wife of Abu Sufyan, as a revenge for her father's killing by Hamza in Badr, slit open the dead body of Hamza, she chewed liver of Hamza. They mutilated Muslim bodies also. Abu Sufyan raised slogan: We revenged Badr! Ommayyads continued their activities against Prophet.

Muslims slowly grew politically powerful. Prophet intended to perform pilgrimage to Makka but was prevented however a peace treaty with Makkans was made, Ommayyads were on side of Makkans. They later attacked Muslims, Prophet asked either to compensate or end the truce, they chose to end the truce. Prophet marched on Makka had a bloodless capture also granted general amnesty.

Ommayyads found themselves valueless and thus chose to accept Islam as best option available. They accepted Islam outwardly. Abu Sufyan, his son Mauwiya (Yazid's father), Hinda Abu Sufyan's wife and other Ommayyads became Muslims at such time when Islam was politically powerful.

Ommayyads were always busy with their silent anti-Islamic activities, on one occassion Prophet himself had to exterminate Marwan (Ommayyad) who later succeded Yazid as caliph and his father Hakam from Madina. Marwan was son in law of Uthman (Ommayyad) who later became 3rd caliph.

After Prophet passed away Uthman tried to cancel the order from both 1st and 2nd caliph but they denied the cancellation. Ali was chief of Hashmite after Prophet, also 1st Shia Imam.

When Uthman (Ommayyad) son of Affan became the third caliph first order he passed was he cancelled the extermination order of Prophet for Marwan and Hakam, and allowed both to once again enter Madina. 

Later Uthman exterminated Abu Dhar Ghiffari a trusted companion of Prophet from Madina because later spoke openly against activities of Uthman. Abu Dar died due to starvation in nearby Rabada desert. 

Uthman also appointed Ommayyads on high posts and incremented their power. Mauwiya (father of Yazid), governor or Syria were granted powers to exercise independence. An alcoholic Uqba (Ommayyad) son of Walid was appointed governor. People's trust was lost during Uthman's caliphate. As administration collapsed, people besieghed the house of Uthman for few days and later murdered him.

Ali was made the Caliph, Mauwiya challenged the caliphate and started his own parallel caliphate, this is how Ommayyad dynasty began, Mauwiya was Ommayad chief now. He accused Ali of Uthman's murder, Ali denied it although. Mauwiya found support from Aisha (Prophet's widow), they together waged war on Ali. Both armies fought in Basra, Ali won the war.

Mauwiya continued his war, Siffin was fought but Mauwiya sensing loss called for pact, which was resultless. Amr (Ommayyad) son of Aa's supported Mauwiya during these years.

When Ali was martyred, Mauwiya declared war on Hasan (Ali's eldest son also eldest grandson of Prophet) was now 2nd Shia Imam and chief of Hashmite. After several clashes Mauwiya offered truce with Hasan. Hasan accepted truce on his conditions of Qur'anic rule, amnesty and compensation for his men, and most important that Mauwiya would not appoint anyone as next caliph in his will. 

Mauwiya when the truce began to work allured Hasan's wife to poison him which she did. Hasan's body was taken for burial near Prophet's grave but was showered with arrows and was not allowed to be buried near Prophet, Ommayyads were the one who prevented the burial.

Husain younger brother of Hasan, became 3rd Shia Imam and also the chief of Hashmite, Husain respected the truce made by his brother and left it working. Mauwiya however broke the truce in his last days and appointed Yazid his son as next caliph, Mauwiya turned caliphate into a dynasty.

When Mauwiya died, Yazid declared himself caliph also became chief of Ommayyads.
 Yazid was sure without Husain's allegience his caliphate would appear illegitimate. Husain denied allegience since Mauwiya had broken the truce. 

Caliphate meant spiritual leadership as well, Yazid wanted to acquire spiritual leadership also to amend Islam according to his whims and fancies. Since, as Ommayyads he too had hated Islam, and now the time were favorable to attack Islam from within. He acquired verdicts from pseudo jurists that Husain was no more a muslim and thus Husain's murder was lawful in Islam.

He forced Husain for allegience which Husain denied in Madina later in Makka. When Husain turned towards Kufa, Yazid appointed Obaidullah (Ommayyad) son of his uncle Ziyad as governor who issued curfew in Kufa, arrested and executed Husain's supporters. Mesum a loyal supporter of Ali was crucified and his tongue was cut, Ommayyads practised such hatred.

Obaidullah sent an army towards possible route of Husain, they met at Karbala. Army was under command of Umar son of Sa'ad, they were asked to take allegience from Husain at any cost.
Water was blocked on Husain's camp, Husain lost his 71 men (brothers, sons, nephews, friends etc), He even lost a 6 month old son. 

Husain questioned the army what fault they find in him and why were they at war with him to disclose their real motive, they answered: hatred for your father. Husain declared: We would never accept such an islam whose caliph is a person like Yazid.

Husain was martyred. 72 heads were put on spears. Husain's left out family, ladies and children were taken as prisoners, these were grand daugthers of Prophet, they were handcuffed and paraded. Presented first to Oabidullah in Kufa and from there were sent to Yazid in Damascus.

In Damascus when Yazid was presented with heads on spear he shouted with joy: Neither any revelation had came nor did any religion, Hashmites had tricked people to acquire supremacy. 

He also said: Today I have taken revenge of my forefathers who were killed in Badr. He also sent captives to prison, kept them there, but as tension mounted and there was fear of riots gave order for their release.

Yazid ruled for three years and died in third year. In first year he ordered killing of Prophet's grandson, in second year he ordered attack on Madina, Prophet's mosque was turned into stable for horses and in third year he ordered attack on Makka in which Ka'ba was burnt.

Marwan son of Hakam (another Ommayyad) who was exterminated from Madina by Prophet himself became the next Caliph of pseudo islam. Ommayyads continued their hatred towards Hashmite until their dynasty came to an end.

To this day hatred in some or other form is evident from pseudo muslims, supporters of Banu Ommayya. These pseudo muslims even today praise each and every Ommayyad tyrants. But Husain's sacrifice is enough to differentiate between true Islam of Prophet and this Ommayyad brand of pseudo terrorist islam. Return to main topic: Karbala, brief overview

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